Professor Michelle Ryan
Professor Michelle Ryan

Discovering the Glass Cliff: Insights into addressing subtle gender discrimination in the workplace

“Our research into the glass cliff shows that women are more likely to be placed in leadership positions which are risky or precarious.” says Professor Michelle Ryan. “Women who make it to board-level in the UK have typically overcome significant hurdles to get there and are often required to operate in a hostile environment.”

“A major impact has been informing public debate – The New York Times named the glass cliff as one of the Top 100 ideas that shaped 2008 and it has been used to describe the situations of many women in leadership – Julia Gillard in Australia, Carly Fiorina (HP) and women in banking after the Icelandic crisis.”

Researchers in Psychology at the University of Exeter have uncovered a new phenomenon relating to gender discrimination in the workplace. Called the “glass cliff”, the research has identified that women tend to occupy more precarious leadership positions than their male counterparts.

In November 2003 The Times published an article entitled ‘Women on Board: Help or Hindrance’. It reported a tendency for UK FTSE 100 companies with women on their boards to perform less well than those that have all-male boards. Their conclusion was that women were “wreaking havoc on UK companies”.

The Exeter team did an in-depth analysis of the performance of FTSE 100 companies and published the results in the British Journal of Management. It showed that while there was a relationship between female board members and share price performance, the causal relation was very different from that claimed by The Times.

Rather than women in top jobs causing poor company performance, they were more likely to be appointed to such jobs after a consistent pattern of poor company performance. Thus, women tended to occupy leadership roles that were more risky and more precarious than their male counterparts – the glass cliff.

Since its discovery, the term ‘glass cliff’ has been widely discussed, with the concept now both informing and shaping debate and the public understanding of women’s leadership positions.

The research impacts have included:

  • Being adopted by the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development (CIPD) and integrated into organisation practice by trainers, coaches, and HR professionals, including the commission of two CIPD publications.
  • Working directly with a number of large companies and organisations, including IBM, the MET office, the MoD, Microsoft and the Royal College of Surgeons, including delivering dedicated seminars and workshops to raise awareness and advise on new strategies to address the issue.
  • Changing the Human Resource procedures at many influential employers, including revising flexible working options, bonus schemes, and the creation of internal support networks.