Publications by year
Wade SL, Jones K, corti C, Adlam A, Limond J, Bardoni A, Gies LM
(In Press). Adapting Intervention Approaches to New Contexts: Three Case Studies of International Adaptation of the Teen Online Problem Solving (TOPS) Program.
Adapting Intervention Approaches to New Contexts: Three Case Studies of International Adaptation of the Teen Online Problem Solving (TOPS) Program
Purpose/Objective: to describe the process of adapting the evidence-based Teen Online Problem Solving (TOPS) program, a telehealth problem-solving treatment addressing executive function and behavior regulation challenges in adolescents with traumatic brain injury, in Italy, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom. Research Method/Design: We describe the process of adapting and translating the TOPS program in three case studies with unique methods and samples. In Italy, 14 parents of adolescents with TBI participated in focus groups and two adolescents with TBI and their parents and two physicians provided input on the resulting translation. In New Zealand, an independent Māori cultural advisor reviewed the content, and six adolescent-parent dyads and two health professionals completed the 10 modules independently over a five-week period to inform adaptation. In the United Kingdom, a team of neuropsychologists and a parent of an adolescent with ABI reviewed and adapted the content through successive iterations. Results: in Italy, suggested changes included greater emphasis on nonverbal communication and clearer examples of inappropriate problem-solving responses. In New Zealand, parents and adolescents rated the program as acceptable and helpful. Suggestions included incorporating familiar Māori settings, integrating religion, and developing videos with New Zealand adolescents. In the United Kingdom, iterative refinements focused on adapting TOPS for other acquired brain injuries and reflecting cross-national differences (e.g. drinking age). Conclusions/Implications: These three case studies suggest that programs such as TOPS developed in one cultural context can be broadly acceptable in other contexts, with adaptations focusing on tailoring to reflect the unique cultural and linguistic setting. Abstract
Jones J, Souchay C, Moulin C, Reynolds S, Adlam AR
(In Press). Children’s CBT skills, Metacognition, Empathy, and Theory of Mind. Journal of Children's Services
Children’s CBT skills, Metacognition, Empathy, and Theory of Mind
Purpose: Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) is an evidence based treatment for common mental health problems that affect children, young people, and adults. The suitability of CBT for children has been questioned because it requires children to think about their thoughts, Abstract
feelings, and behaviours. The aim of this study was to investigate which cognitive and affective capacities predict children’s ability to relate thoughts, feelings, and behaviours. Design/methodology/approach - Fifty nine typically developing children aged between 8-11 years took part in the study. CBT skills were assessed on a story task that required children to relate the character’s thoughts to their feelings and behaviours. Children also completed an assessment of IQ, a feeling-of-knowing metamemory task that assessed metacognition, and a higher-order Theory of Mind (ToM) task. Furthermore, parents rated their child’s empathy on the Children’s Empathy Quotient.
Findings – Children demonstrated high levels of CBT skills, metacognition, and ToM. CBT skills were significantly predicted by metacognition and empathy, but not ToM.
Originality/value – the findings suggest that CBT is developmentally appropriate for 8-11 year old children; however, young children and children with mental health problems may have impaired metacognition and CBT skills. Metacognition and empathy may moderate the efficacy of child CBT and warrant further investigation in clinical trials.
Adlam AR, Adams M, Gracey F, Dunn BD (In Press). Empathy in survivors of traumatic brain injury: the role of interoception and emotion recognition. Cortex
Adlam AR, Westgate B, Williams C (In Press). Executive function assessments in children and adults who have survived a brain injury: a systematic review. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
Du X, Livingstone AG, Adlam A
(In Press). Felt understanding as a bridge between social identity and wellbeing among international University students.
Felt understanding as a bridge between social identity and wellbeing among international University students
Wellbeing issues among international students in UK higher education have been recognised as a crisis. To address this, we integrate social identity and felt understanding approaches to wellbeing and mental health, testing whether felt understanding (the belief that others understand oneself) is an important process through which social identity predicts better wellbeing, over and above other, more established mediators (social support, life meaning, and personal control). International University students (including both undergraduates and postgraduates, N = 212) completed an online survey which measured three sets of variables: social identity variables (ingroup identification, multiple identities, multiple identity compatibility); process variables (social support, felt understanding, life meaning, personal control); and wellbeing outcomes (e.g. depression, anxiety, stress). Path analyses confirmed that felt understanding predicted better wellbeing outcomes over and above the other mediators. Additionally, indirect effects from social identity variables to wellbeing via felt understanding were consistently significant, even when adjusting for the other mediators. The results are consistent with the idea that felt understanding is an under-acknowledged resource through which social identities protect wellbeing. The findings contribute to social cure research and have implications for promoting wellbeing services from the perspective of group memberships. Abstract
Jones JS, Adlam ALR, Benattayallah A, Milton F (In Press). The Neural Correlates of Working Memory Training in Typically Developing Children. Child Development
Adlam A-L (In Press). Working memory training for children who have survived a brain injury.
Farooq A, Ketzitzidou Argyri E, Adlam A, Rutland A
(2022). Children and Adolescents' Ingroup Biases and Developmental Differences in Evaluations of Peers Who Misinform. Front Psychol
Children and Adolescents' Ingroup Biases and Developmental Differences in Evaluations of Peers Who Misinform.
Previous developmental research shows that young children display a preference for ingroup members when it comes to who they accept information from - even when that information is false. However, it is not clear how this ingroup bias develops into adolescence, and how it affects responses about peers who misinform in intergroup contexts, which is important to explore with growing numbers of young people on online platforms. Given that the developmental span from childhood to adolescence is when social groups and group norms are particularly important, the present study took a Social Reasoning Developmental Approach. This study explored whether children and adolescents respond differently to a misinformer spreading false claims about a peer breaking COVID-19 rules, depending on (a) the group membership of the misinformer and their target and (b) whether the ingroup had a "critical" norm that values questioning information before believing it. 354 United Kingdom-based children (8-11 years old) and adolescents (12-16 years old) read about an intergroup scenario in which a peer spreads misinformation on WhatsApp about a competitor. Participants first made moral evaluations, which asked them to judge and decide whether or not to include the misinformer, with follow-up "Why?" questions to capture their reasoning. This was followed by asking them to attribute intentions to the misinformer. Results showed that ingroup preferences emerged both when participants morally evaluated the misinformer, and when they justified those responses. Participants were more likely to evaluate an ingroup compared to an outgroup misinformer positively, and more likely to accuse an outgroup misinformer of dishonesty. Adolescents attributed more positive intentions to the misinformer compared with children, with children more likely to believe an outgroup misinformer was deliberately misinforming. The critical norm condition resulted in children making more positive intentionality attributions toward an ingroup misinformer, but not an outgroup misinformer. This study's findings highlight the importance of shared group identity with a misinformer when morally evaluating and reasoning about their actions, and the key role age plays in intentionality attributions surrounding a misinformer when their intentions are ambiguous. Abstract
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Ankrett S, Smithson J, Limond J, Behn N, Wade SL, Wilkinson L, Adlam A-LR (2022). Understanding and supporting peer relationships in adolescents with acquired brain injury: a stakeholder engagement study. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 1-30.
Wade SL, Jones KM, Corti C, Adlam AR, Limond J, Bardoni A, Gies LM
(2021). Adapting intervention approaches to new contexts: Three case studies of international adaptation of the Teen Online Problem Solving (TOPS) program. Rehabil Psychol
Adapting intervention approaches to new contexts: Three case studies of international adaptation of the Teen Online Problem Solving (TOPS) program.
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE: to describe the process of adapting the evidence-based Teen Online Problem Solving (TOPS) program, a telehealth problem-solving treatment addressing executive function and behavior regulation challenges in adolescents with traumatic brain injury, in Italy, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom. Research Method/Design: We describe the process of adapting and translating the TOPS program in 3 case studies with unique methods and samples. In Italy, 14 parents of adolescents with TBI participated in focus groups, and 2 adolescents with TBI and their parents and 2 physicians provided input on the resulting translation. In New Zealand, an independent Māori cultural advisor reviewed the content, and 6 adolescent-parent dyads and 2 health professionals completed the 10 modules independently over a five-week period to inform adaptation. In the United Kingdom, a team of neuropsychologists and a parent of an adolescent with ABI reviewed and adapted the content through successive iterations. RESULTS: in Italy, suggested changes included greater emphasis on nonverbal communication and clearer examples of inappropriate problem-solving responses. In New Zealand, parents and adolescents rated the program as acceptable and helpful. Suggestions included incorporating familiar Māori settings, integrating religion, and developing videos with New Zealand adolescents. In the United Kingdom, iterative refinements focused on adapting TOPS for other acquired brain injuries and reflecting cross-national differences (e.g. drinking age). CONCLUSIONS/IMPLICATIONS: These 3 case studies suggest that programs such as TOPS developed in 1 cultural context can be broadly acceptable in other contexts, with adaptations focusing on tailoring to reflect the unique cultural and linguistic setting. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved). Abstract
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O'Brien C, Limond J, Reynolds S, Pass L, Adlam A
(2021). Conor O'Brien DClinPsy Thesis 2021. Paper One: ‘Evidence-based’ psychological therapies for depression in adults with acquired brain injury: a systematic review. Paper Two: Evaluating Brief Behavioural Activation for depression in adolescents with acquired brain injury using a single-case experimental design.
Conor O'Brien DClinPsy Thesis 2021. Paper One: ‘Evidence-based’ psychological therapies for depression in adults with acquired brain injury: a systematic review. Paper Two: Evaluating Brief Behavioural Activation for depression in adolescents with acquired brain injury using a single-case experimental design.
Paper One: Abstract
Background: Depression following acquired brain injury (ABI) in adults is common. Psychological therapies are important for treating depression following ABI and improve overall rehabilitation gains. Previous reviews have investigated the literature on psychological therapies for depression following ABI. However, many of these therapies included in the review are not available in the UK’s NHS, nor considered ‘evidence-based’ by NICE guidance.
Method: Studies conducted since NICE guidance for depression was released in October 2009 investigating ‘evidence-based’ psychological therapies for depression in a sample of adults with ABI were included in the review. A total 1,533 studies were screened, leading to the identification of five eligible studies for review.
Results: Four studies investigated cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT); two one-to-one CBT studies and two CBT group studies using the Window to Hope protocol. One study investigated behavioural activation (BA). Results were mixed; though, studies reporting non-significant results were methodologically less robust and of lower quality. Two CBT studies and the BA study showed promising results, with reliable change in depression scores at post-treatment compared to baseline. Effect sizes for significant studies were ‘medium’ to ‘large’, and were ‘very small’ and ‘small’ for non-significant studies.
Discussion: the findings suggest that ‘evidence-based’ therapies for depression in adults with ABI could be effective. However, more high-quality research with robust methodology is needed to reach more substantial conclusions. Suggestions for future research, including investigating other ‘evidence-based’ therapies, like behavioural couples’ therapy and interpersonal therapy, are discussed.
Background: Adolescents with acquired brain injury (ABI) commonly experience depression due to difficulties with participation, quality of life (QoL), and performing usual activities. Brief Behavioural Activation (BBA) is a successful, values-based intervention for managing depression in typical adolescents and is investigated using a single-case experimental design with adolescents experiencing depression following ABI.
Methods: Five adolescents aged 14-17 years with mild to severe ABI of various aetiologies completed a 6-week course of BBA following at least 2 weeks of baseline measurements. The primary outcome measures were mean daily activity scores out of 10 for 'achievement', 'closeness' and 'enjoyment' (MACES). After baseline MACES collection, activities aligning with participants' values were introduced or targeted during the intervention and further MACES were collected. Depression, QoL, and participation scores at post-treatment and follow-up were compared to baseline.
Results: No overall statistical changes in mean activity scores for all participants were found. Though, each participant showed significant change in one area and some changes using visual inspection. All participants reported significant reliable change in depression scores at their follow-up sessions, with three showing clinically significant change. Three participants reported reliable change in QoL. All parents reported reliable change in participants' depression and QoL scores.
Discussion: Despite no significant changes in MACES, increased participant insight linking valued activities, mood and positive reinforcement may have positively impacted on participants' depression and QoL outcomes. Rationale is presented for charities and services providing low-intensity interventions to consider trialling BBA for adolescents with depression following ABI. Future research suggestions are discussed.
Jones JS, Adlam A-LR, Benatayallah A, Milton F (2021). The Neural Correlates of Working Memory Training in Typically Developing Children – Working Paper.
Roberts H, Mostazir M, Moberly NJ, Watkins ER, Adlam A-L (2021). Working memory updating training reduces state repetitive negative thinking: Proof-of-concept for a novel cognitive control training. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 142, 103871-103871.
(2020). Scott Ankrett DClinPsy Thesis 2020. Paper One: the Efficacy of Interventions That Facilitate Social Participation on Outcomes of Social Participation and Quality of Life in Adults with Acquired Brain Injury. Paper Two: Improving Peer Relationships for Adolescents with Acquired Brain Injury: Using Intervention Mapping as a Framework to Identify Targets for Intervention.
Scott Ankrett DClinPsy Thesis 2020. Paper One: the Efficacy of Interventions That Facilitate Social Participation on Outcomes of Social Participation and Quality of Life in Adults with Acquired Brain Injury. Paper Two: Improving Peer Relationships for Adolescents with Acquired Brain Injury: Using Intervention Mapping as a Framework to Identify Targets for Intervention.
Paper One Abstract: Abstract
Background and aims. Social participation is a key determinant for health and wellbeing across the lifespan, and is a frequent goal for rehabilitation. Acquired brain injury (ABI) is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide that can result in persistent difficulties within cognitive, emotional, behavioural, physical, and social domains that contribute to chronic disability and restricted participation. Consequently, survivors are at higher risk of social isolation and reduced quality of life (QoL). The social participatory goals of rehabilitation are increasingly advocated for to support QoL and minimise disability post-ABI. The aim of this review was to explore the efficacy of interventions that facilitate social participation on outcomes of social participation and QoL in adult survivors of ABI. The synthesis of available evidence might support rehabilitation professionals to consider how to improve such outcomes in post-acute settings.
Methods. A systematic review was conducted to locate, appraise, and synthesise evidence relating to the review questions. Appropriate intervention studies were identified using a pre-determined search strategy. These were then assessed for inclusion against pre-defined eligibility criteria to investigate the efficacy of their interventions on the target outcomes for this review, social participation and QoL.
Results. of the 1119 possible articles identified in the initial search, 12 studies met the inclusion criteria for this review. Data were then extracted and methodologies were critically appraised. Intervention programmes were grouped according to intervention methods, and included peer-mentoring, community integration, leisure activities, outpatient neuropsychological rehabilitation, intensive cognitive rehabilitation, and health-promotion. Seven of the 12 studies found statistically significant differences on at least one target outcome following intervention. Four of these identified efficacy on both social participation and QoL, and varied in methodological design and quality.
Conclusion. Currently, there is limited evidence for the efficacy of interventions that facilitate social participation on outcomes of social participation and QoL for adults with ABI. The varying objectives, quality, and potential bias of the 12 included studies limits the conclusions that can be drawn. Social participatory interventions appear to have objective and subjective benefits for adults post-ABI. Appropriate intervention methods (i.e. delivery and focus) to support target outcomes is uncertain from the limited literature included in this review. However, interventions that showed efficacy on both target outcomes (four of the 12) were multifaceted and intensive. Rehabilitation of social participation to support social participation and QoL post-ABI may benefit from supporting participants to develop the skills and self-belief needed to actively participate in social activities that are important to them, however, further evidence is needed. Considerations for future research and clinical implications are outlined.
Paper Two Abstract:
Background and aims. Adolescence is a time for significant social development, facilitated by successful peer relationships. Those with reduced social skills are at risk of being rejected or victimised by peers, and can face significant emotional ramifications and implications for quality of life (QoL). Peer relationships for adolescents with acquired brain injury (ABI) have been largely under-recognised in the paediatric neuropsychology literature. Previous interventions aiming to improve social skills (needed for peer relationships) in this population have shown inconsistent efficacy and the targets for intervention are unclear. The intervention mapping (IM) framework offers a systematic and iterative protocol for the co-production of interventions through engagement with key stakeholders. This consists of six steps for intervention design, implementation, and evaluation: (1) creating a logic model of the target problem; (2) stating programme objectives; (3) programme design; (4) programme production; (5) implementation plan; and (6) evaluation plan. This study aimed to: (a) develop a collaborative understanding of peer relationship difficulties for adolescents with ABI; and (b) seek the views of adolescents and other key stakeholders on what might be required to improve peer relationships post-ABI, and what intervention the goals might be. Qualitative methodology was used to support these aims. The findings of this study can inform the co-development of a meaningful intervention to support peer relationships and QoL in adolescents with ABI using the IM protocol in future research.
Method. Consistent with IM protocol, a planning group comprising four ABI clinical-researchers provided consultation at each stage of the study. First, the planning group completed a survey to develop an initial logic model. This is a framework for understanding peer relationship difficulties following ABI, the determinants (or contributing factors) for these, and the long-term impact on QoL for adolescents. Focus groups and semi-structured interviews were then conducted with four stakeholder groups to develop an in-depth understanding of peer relationship difficulties post-ABI, the impact of these, and the determinants contributing to such difficulties, and to further develop the initial logic model: (1) adolescents with ABI (n=4); (2) parents of adolescents with ABI (n=7); (3) adults who sustained an ABI in adolescence (n=2); and (4) specialist practitioners (n=3). Perspectives were also obtained from stakeholders concerning what might need to change to support peer relationships post-ABI and what the targets for intervention might be. Qualitative data from focus groups and interviews were analysed using thematic analysis.
Results. The analysis of stakeholder conversations yielded 11 themes, grouped into two domains: (1) understanding peer relationship difficulties (e.g. dropped and excluded, a need to belong, restricted independence); and (2) supporting peer relationships (e.g. building understanding, meaningful social connection). The logic model underwent six iterations following planning group and stakeholder feedback. This was provided by stakeholders in the focus groups and interviews, and by planning group members and stakeholders through further member-checking procedures following the analysis.
Conclusions. Adolescents with ABI were reported to experience difficulties with peer relationships. At an important time for social development, peer rejection can increase feelings of isolation, loneliness, shame, and hopelessness. This can have further implications for mental health, peer relationships, and QoL. The individual, psychological, behavioural, and environmental determinants for peer relationship difficulties are broad. A meaningful intervention would need to be multifaceted attempting to build understanding in others, facilitate meaningful social opportunities, offer early support post-injury, and help manage psychological wellbeing. A primary focus would be to empower adolescents post-ABI. The presented logic model provides a robust understanding of peer relationship difficulties for adolescents with ABI that can be used to guide intervention development in future research.
Wade SL, Gies LM, Fisher AP, Moscato EL, Adlam A-L, Bardoni A, Corti C, Limond J, Modi AC, Raj SP, et al (2020). Telepsychotherapy with children and families: Lessons gleaned. from two decades of translational research. Journal of Psychotherapy Integration, 30, 332-347.
Wade S, Gies L, Fisher A, Moscato E, Adlam A, Bardoni A, Corti C, Limond J, Modi A, Raj S, et al
(2020). Telepsychotherapy with children and families: Lessons gleaned from two decades of translational research.
Telepsychotherapy with children and families: Lessons gleaned from two decades of translational research
The novel coronavirus, COVID-19, has led to sweeping changes in psychological practice and the concomitant rapid uptake of telepsychotherapy. Although telepsychotherapy is new to many clinical psychologists, there is considerable research on telepsychotherapy treatments. Nearly two decades of clinical research on telepsychotherapy treatments with children with neurological conditions has the potential to inform emerging clinical practice in the age of COVID-19. Toward that end, we synthesized findings from 14 clinical trials of telepsychotherapy problemsolving and parent training interventions involving more than 800 children and families with diverse diagnoses including traumatic brain injury, epilepsy, brain tumors, congenital heart disease, and perinatal stroke. We summarize efficacy across studies and clinical populations and report feasibility and acceptability data from the perspectives of parents, children, and therapists. We describe adaptation for international contexts and strategies for troubleshooting technological challenges and working with families of varying socioeconomic strata. The extensive research literature reviewed and synthesized provides considerable support for the utility of telepsychotherapy with children with neurological conditions and their families and underscores its high level of acceptability with both diverse clinical populations and providers. During this period of heightened vulnerability and stress and reduced access to usual supports and services, telepsychotherapy approaches such as online family problem-solving treatment and online parenting skills training may allow psychologists to deliver traditional evidence-based treatments virtually while preserving fidelity and efficacy. Abstract
Wade SL, Gies LM, Fisher AP, Moscato EL, Adlam AR, Bardoni A, Corti C, Limond J, Modi AC, Williams T, et al (2020). Telepsychotherapy with children and families: Lessons gleaned from two decades of translational research. Journal of Psychotherapy Integration, 30(2), 332-347.
Jones J, Milton FN, Mostazir M, Adlam A (2020). The Academic Outcomes of Working Memory and Metacognitive Strategy Training in Children: a Double-Blind Randomised Controlled Trial. Developmental Science, 23, n/a-n/a.
Limond J, Wade SL, Vickery PJ, Jeffery A, Warren FC, Hawton A, Smithson J, Ford T, Haworth S, Adlam A-LR, et al
(2019). Clinical and cost-effectiveness of teen online problem-solving for adolescents who have survived an acquired brain injury in the UK: protocol for a randomised, controlled feasibility study (TOPS-UK). BMJ Open
Clinical and cost-effectiveness of teen online problem-solving for adolescents who have survived an acquired brain injury in the UK: protocol for a randomised, controlled feasibility study (TOPS-UK).
INTRODUCTION: Paediatric acquired brain injury is a leading cause of mortality in children in the UK. Improved treatment during the acute phase has led to increased survival rates, although with life-long morbidity in terms of social and emotional functioning. This is the protocol for a feasibility randomised controlled trial with an embedded qualitative study and feasibility economic evaluation. If feasible, a later definitive trial will test the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of an online intervention to enhance problem solving ability versus treatment as usual. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Twenty-five adolescents and their families identified by primary or secondary care clinicians at participating UK National Health Service Trusts will be recruited and individually randomised in a 1:1 ratio to receive the online intervention or treatment as usual. Participants will be followed up by online questionnaires 17 weeks after randomisation to capture acceptability of the study and intervention and resource use data. Qualitative interviews will capture participants' and clinicians' experiences of the study. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study has been granted ethical approval by the South West-Exeter Research Ethics Committee (ref 17/SW/0083). Results will be disseminated via peer-reviewed publications and will inform the design of a larger trial. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN10906069. Abstract
Adlam AR (2019). Memory Problems. In van Teijlingen E, Humphris G (Eds.) Psychology and Sociology Applied to Medicine 4E – an illustrated colour text, Edinburgh, UK: Elsevier.
(2019). The Role of Self-Compassion as a Moderator in the Relationship Between Burnout and Psychological Wellbeing in Staff Working with People with Learning Disabilities.
The Role of Self-Compassion as a Moderator in the Relationship Between Burnout and Psychological Wellbeing in Staff Working with People with Learning Disabilities
Objective. Research demonstrates that self-compassion is linked to burnout and other psychological wellbeing outcome measures such as quality of life, stress, depression, and wellbeing. It is known that care occupations, and specifically those who work with individuals with learning disabilities, suffer with burnout and other psychological symptoms such as anxiety and depression. Several studies have examined these relationships in care staff. However, they have not been examined in a UK healthcare context, nor in a sample of learning disabilities staff for whom burnout is prevalent and relevant. With self-compassion as a moderator, this study Abstract
investigated burnout’s relationship to depression and psychological wellbeing respectively, in a UK learning disabilities staff sample.
Methods. 120 adult staff members (97 females and 23 males) aged between 18 and 64 years who work with adults with learning disabilities participated in the study. Participants completed an anonymised online questionnaire comprising the Self-Compassion Scale; the Maslow Burnout Inventory; the Beck Depression Inventory; and the Ryff Scale of Psychological Wellbeing.
Results. Self-compassion was at an average level for this sample and
depression scores were low. Moderation analyses illustrated that self-compassion significantly moderated the relationship between burnout (personal accomplishment) and psychological wellbeing (positive relationships with others); and burnout (both emotional exhaustion and personal accomplishment) and depression.
Jeffery A, Wilks J, Mitchell S, Cocking L, Smithson J, Adlam A
(2019). The challenges of conducting an online paediatric study (Teen Online Problem Solving for adolescents who have survived a brain injury in the UK: a feasibility study (TOPS-UK). Author URL
Norwich B, Fujita T, Adlam A, Milton F, Edwards-Jones A (2018). Lesson study: an inter-professional approach for Educational Psychologists to improve teaching and learning. Educational Psychology in Practice, 34, 370-385.
Garrigan B, Adlam ALR, Langdon PE
(2018). Moral decision-making and moral development: Toward an integrative framework. Developmental Review
Moral decision-making and moral development: Toward an integrative framework
How moral decision-making occurs, matures over time and relates to behaviour is complex. To develop a full picture of moral decision-making, moral development and moral behaviour it is necessary to understand: (a) how real-time moral decisions are made (including relevant social and contextual factors), (b) what processes are required to develop to enable mature moral decisions, (c) how these processes develop over time, and (d) how moral decisions relate to behaviour. In this paper, psychological and social neuroscience theories of moral decision-making and development are briefly reviewed, as is the development of relevant component processes. Various component processes and factors are seen as required for moral decision-making and development, yet there is no comprehensive framework incorporating these components into one explanation of how real-time moral decisions are made and mature. In this paper, we integrated these components into a new framework based on social information processing (SIP) theory. Situational factors, and how both cognitive and affective processes guide moral decisions was incorporated into the Social Information Processing-Moral Decision-Making (SIP-MDM) framework, drawing upon theories and findings from developmental psychology and social neuroscience. How this framework goes beyond previous SIP models was outlined, followed by a discussion of how it can explain both real-time moral decisions and moral development. We concluded with how the SIP-MDM framework could be used to guide future research and theory development in this area. Abstract
Wade SL, Narad ME, Shultz EL, Kurowski BG, Miley AE, Aguilar JM, Adlam A-LR
(2018). Technology-assisted rehabilitation interventions following pediatric brain injury. J Neurosurg Sci
Technology-assisted rehabilitation interventions following pediatric brain injury.
INTRODUCTION: Following traumatic brain injury (TBI), children experience a variety of physical, motor, speech, and cognitive deficits that can have a long-term detrimental impact. The emergence and popularity of new technologies has led to research into the development of various apps, gaming systems, websites, and robotics that might be applied to rehabilitation. The objective of this narrative review was to describe the current literature regarding technologically-assisted interventions for the rehabilitation of motor, neurocognitive, behavioral, and family impairments following pediatric TBI. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: We conducted a series of searches for peer-reviewed manuscripts published between 2000 and 2017 that included a technology-assisted component in the domains of motor, language/communication, cognition, behavior, social competence/functioning, family, and academic/school-based functioning. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Findings suggested several benefits of utilizing technology in TBI rehabilitation including facilitating engagement/adherence, increasing access to therapies, and improving generalizability across settings. There is fairly robust evidence regarding the efficacy of online family problem-solving therapy in improving behavior problems, executive functioning, and family functioning. There was less compelling, but still promising, evidence regarding the efficacy other technology for motor deficits, apps for social skills, and computerized programs for cognitive skills. Overall, many studies were limited in the rigor of their methodology due to small heterogeneous samples and lack of control groups. CONCLUSIONS: Technology-assisted interventions have the potential to enhance pediatric rehabilitation after TBI. Future research is needed to further support their efficacy with larger controlled trials and to identify characteristics of children who are most likely to benefit. Abstract
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Bagge S, Westgate B, Few K, Clarke P, Adlam ALR, Walsh J, O'Brien M (2017). Acceptability and feasibility of collecting data from fathers on their psychosocial adaptation to the birth of a very low birth weight infant. Journal of Child Health Care, 21, 283-291.
Steverson T, Adlam A-LR, Langdon PE
(2017). Development and Validation of a Modified Multiple Errands Test for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities. J Appl Res Intellect Disabil
Development and Validation of a Modified Multiple Errands Test for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities.
BACKGROUND: the aims of the current study were to adapt a version of the MET for people with intellectual disabilities and assess its ecological and construct validity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Using a correlational design, 40 participants with intellectual disabilities were invited to complete a battery of neuropsychological assessments and the modified Multiple Errands Test for Intellectual Disabilities (mMET-IDs). RESULTS: the ability to successfully complete tasks on the mMET-IDs correlated significantly with measures of the Supervisory Attentional System, namely, the Tower of London Test and the Six Parts Test. However, performance on the mMET-IDs and the Six Parts Test could be accounted for by Verbal IQ and receptive vocabulary. The mMET-IDs failed to correlate with the DEX-IR. CONCLUSIONS: the mMET-IDs can be successfully used to assess some aspects of the Supervisory Attentional System in people with intellectual disabilities. Further development is needed, however, to improve the ecological validity of the mMET-IDs. Abstract
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Bowtell JL, Aboo-Bakkar Z, Conway ME, Adlam A-LR, Fulford J
(2017). Enhanced task-related brain activation and resting perfusion in healthy older adults after chronic blueberry supplementation. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab
Enhanced task-related brain activation and resting perfusion in healthy older adults after chronic blueberry supplementation.
Blueberries are rich in flavonoids, which possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. High flavonoid intakes attenuate age-related cognitive decline, but data from human intervention studies are sparse. We investigated whether 12 weeks of blueberry concentrate supplementation improved brain perfusion, task-related activation, and cognitive function in healthy older adults. Participants were randomised to consume either 30 mL blueberry concentrate providing 387 mg anthocyanidins (5 female, 7 male; age 67.5 ± 3.0 y; body mass index, 25.9 ± 3.3 kg·m-2) or isoenergetic placebo (8 female, 6 male; age 69.0 ± 3.3 y; body mass index, 27.1 ± 4.0 kg·m-2). Pre- and postsupplementation, participants undertook a battery of cognitive function tests and a numerical Stroop test within a 1.5T magnetic resonance imaging scanner while functional magnetic resonance images were continuously acquired. Quantitative resting brain perfusion was determined using an arterial spin labelling technique, and blood biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress were measured. Significant increases in brain activity were observed in response to blueberry supplementation relative to the placebo group within Brodmann areas 4/6/10/21/40/44/45, precuneus, anterior cingulate, and insula/thalamus (p < 0.001) as well as significant improvements in grey matter perfusion in the parietal (5.0 ± 1.8 vs -2.9 ± 2.4%, p = 0.013) and occipital (8.0 ± 2.6 vs -0.7 ± 3.2%, p = 0.031) lobes. There was also evidence suggesting improvement in working memory (2-back test) after blueberry versus placebo supplementation (p = 0.05). Supplementation with an anthocyanin-rich blueberry concentrate improved brain perfusion and activation in brain areas associated with cognitive function in healthy older adults. Abstract
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Garrigan B, Adlam ALR, Langdon PE
(2017). Erratum: Corrigendum to “The neural correlates of moral decision-making: a systematic review and meta-analysis of moral evaluations and response decision judgements” (Brain and Cognition (2016) 108 (88–97) (S0278262616301646) (10.1016/j.bandc.2016.07.007)). Brain and Cognition
Erratum: Corrigendum to “The neural correlates of moral decision-making: a systematic review and meta-analysis of moral evaluations and response decision judgements” (Brain and Cognition (2016) 108 (88–97) (S0278262616301646) (10.1016/j.bandc.2016.07.007))
A cluster-level thresholding error in the version of GingerALE software used by the authors (version 2.3.4) was reported by Eickhoff et al. (2016) recently. The authors subsequently re-ran the ALE analysis using version 2.3.6 of GingerALE. This resulted in a change to the meta-analysis clusters, with the two smallest clusters for moral evaluations (ME) and moral response decisions (MRD) being no longer being significant. There was no change to the conjunction analysis, or to the ME-MRD contrast (still no significant clusters). The results for the MRD-ME contrast are slightly different after re-running the analysis, although the area labels remain the same. Table 1 below shows the corrected results obtained from re-running the analysis in GingerALE version 2.3.6 and Fig. 1 displays the brain activation maps for MEs, MRDs and the MRD-ME contrast based on the revised analysis. We stated in our original paper that “six significant clusters of activation were found across the ME experiments (18 experiments, 174 foci, 383 participants): two in the left medial frontal gyrus (MFG), the left superior temporal gyrus (STG), left cingulate gyrus (CG), right STG and right MFG. Six significant clusters were found across the MRD experiments (10 experiments, 97 foci, 259 participants): left middle temporal gyrus (MTG), left precuneus, right MFG, right MTG, right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and left caudate.” (p. 91). After re-running the analysis in GingerALE 2.3.6, only four significant clusters of activation were found for ME and MRD experiments, with the two smallest clusters for each type being no longer significant. There were no longer significant clusters for MEs in the left and right MFG, Brodmann area (BA) 10, although the largest cluster for MFG, BA 9 remained. For MRDs, there was no longer a significant cluster in the right IFG, BA 47 or the left caudate. The number of experiments, foci and participants remained the same. In terms of how the new results affected the discussion within our original paper, we had stated that we found significant clusters of activation in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) for MEs: cluster 5 and 6, MFG BA 10. However, clusters 5 and 6 for MEs were no longer significant after we re-ran the analysis, due to the cluster-level threshold bug in GingerALE 2.3.4. Our meta-analysis therefore only found one cluster (cluster 1 for MEs; MFG, BA 9) adjacent to the regions commonly referred to as the vmPFC. This further strengthens the argument that although the vmPFC has traditionally been the brain region most commonly implicated in moral decision-making, further research is needed to establish whether this brain region is involved for different types of moral evaluation tasks, and when making your own moral decisions. In our comparison of our ME results with Bzdok et al.'s (2012), we previously said that we both found activation in the left and right MFG, BA10, while our revised findings indicated significant activation of the left MFG, BA9 only. Comparing our ME results with that of Sevinc and Spreng (2014), we had previously stated that we both found activation in the right MFG, BA 10 but this cluster was no longer significant in our revised analysis. In the comparison of our MRD results with that of Sevinc and Spreng (2014) we also previously stated that while they found activation in the left IRF, we found activation in the right IFG, but this region is no longer significant in our revised analysis. Abstract
Koutsouris G, Norwich B, Fujita T, Ralph T, Adlam A, Milton F
(2017). Piloting a dispersed and inter-professional Lesson Study using technology to link team members at a distance. Technology, Pedagogy and Education
Piloting a dispersed and inter-professional Lesson Study using technology to link team members at a distance
This article presents an evaluation of distance technology used in a novel Lesson Study (LS) approach involving a dispersed LS team for inter-professional purposes. A typical LS model with only school teachers as team members was modified by including university-based lecturers with the school-based teachers, using video-conferencing and online video sharing. The aim was to examine the experiences of using video-conferencing and video transfer technology to support the use of LS procedures to connect team members between schools and university. The meetings from two LS teams (primary and secondary) were recorded and analysed using a discourse analysis framework, and team members were interviewed after the LS cycle. Despite some technical difficulties, the communication between the dispersed members of the teams was largely smooth and successful. Extending LS teams and practice to include non school teachers, using distance-linking technology, can more effectively support teachers, while reducing the practical constraints of bringing other professionals into the LS team. Abstract
Mahan S, Rous R, Adlam A
(2017). Systematic Review of Neuropsychological Rehabilitation for Prospective Memory Deficits as a Consequence of Acquired Brain Injury. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society
Systematic Review of Neuropsychological Rehabilitation for Prospective Memory Deficits as a Consequence of Acquired Brain Injury
Objectives: Prospective memory (PM) impairments are common following acquired brain injury (ABI). PM is the ability to keep a goal in mind for future action and interventions have the potential to increase independence. This review aimed to evaluate studies examining PM rehabilitation approaches in adults and children with ABI. Methods:Relevant literature was identified using PsycARTICLES (1894 to present), PsycINFO (1880 to present), the Cochrane Library (1972 to present), MEDLINE PubMed, reference lists from relevant journal articles, and searches of key journals. Literature searches were conducted using variants of the terms brain injury, stroke, encephalitis, meningitis, and tumor, combined with variants of the terms rehabilitation and prospective memory. Results: of the 435 papers identified, 11 were included in the review. Findings demonstrated a variety of interventions to alleviate PM deficits, including compensatory strategies (e.g. external memory aids) that provide either content-specific or content-free cueing, and remediation strategies (e.g. meta-cognitive training programs) aimed at improving the self-monitoring of personal goals. Risk of bias for individual studies was considered and the strengths and limitations of each of the included studies and the review itself were discussed. Conclusions: Interventions used with adults can be effective; PM abilities can be improved by using simple reminder systems and performance can be generalized to facilitate everyday PM functioning. There is, however, a lack of research of PM interventions conducted with children with ABI, and pediatric interventions need to consider on-going cognitive maturation. Abstract
Adlam ALR, Adams M, Turnbull O, Yeates G, Gracey F
(2017). The Bangor Gambling Task: Characterising the Performance of Survivors of Traumatic Brain Injury. Brain Impairment
The Bangor Gambling Task: Characterising the Performance of Survivors of Traumatic Brain Injury
The Bangor Gambling Task (BGT, Bowman & Turnbull, 2004) is a simple test of emotion-based decision making, with contingencies varying across five blocks of 20 trials. This is the first study to characterise BGT performance in survivors of traumatic brain injury (TBI) relative to healthy controls. The study also aimed to explore sub-groups (cluster analysis), and identify predictors of task performance (multiple regression). Thirty survivors of TBI and thirty-nine controls completed the BGT and measures of processing speed, pre-morbid IQ, working memory, and executive function. Results showed that survivors of TBI made more gamble choices than controls (total BGT score), although the groups did not significantly differ when using a cut-off score for 'impaired' performance. Unexpectedly, the groups did not significantly differ in their performance across the blocks; however, the cluster analysis revealed three subgroups (with survivors of TBI and controls represented in each cluster). Findings also indicated that only age and group were significant predictors of overall BGT performance. In conclusion, the study findings are consistent with an individual difference account of emotion-based decision making, and a number of issues need to be addressed prior to recommending the clinical use of the BGT. Abstract
Adlam AR, Limond J, Lah S
(2017). The Rehabilitation of Attention in Adults and Children Part 2: Rehabilitation of attention disorders in children. In Wilson B, Winegardner J, van Heugtan C, Ownsworth T (Eds.) Neuropsychological Rehabilitation: the International Handbook
, Taylor and Francis.
The Rehabilitation of Attention in Adults and Children Part 2: Rehabilitation of attention disorders in children
Westgate B, Dunning D, Roberts H, Adlam AR (2017). The clinical use of Cogmed Working Memory Training (CWMT): a clinician survey. The Neuropsychologist
Dunning DL, Westgate B, Adlam ALR
(2016). A meta-analysis of working memory impairments in survivors of moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury. Neuropsychology
A meta-analysis of working memory impairments in survivors of moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury
Objectives: to establish the magnitude of deficits in working memory (WM) and short-term memory(STM) in those with moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) relative to age-matched, healthycontrols and to explore the moderating effects of time since injury and age at injury on these impairments.Method: Twenty-one studies that compared the WM and/or STM abilities of individuals with at least amoderate TBI relative to healthy controls were included in a random effects meta-analysis. Measuresused to examine memory performance were categorized by modality (visuospatial, verbal) and memorysystem (WM, STM). Results: Individuals with TBI had significant deficits in verbal STM (Cohen's d =41), visuospatial WM (Cohen's d =. 69), and verbal WM (Cohen's d ±. 37) relative to controls. Greaterdecrements in verbal STM and verbal WM skills were associated with longer time postinjury. Largerdeficits were observed in verbal WM abilities in individuals with older age at injury. Conclusion:Evidence for WM impairments following TBI is consistent with previous research. Larger verbal STMand verbal WM deficits were related to a longer time postinjury, suggesting that these aspects of memorydo not "recover" over time and instead, individuals might show increased rates of cognitive decline. Ageat injury was associated with the severity of verbal WM impairments, with larger deficits evident forinjuries that occurred later in life. Further research needs to chart the long-term effects of TBI on WMand to compare the effects of injury on verbal relative to visuospatial memory. Abstract
Ukoumunne OC, 1. Farrand P, Woodford J, Llewellyn D, Anderson M, Venkatasubramanian S, Adlam A, Dickens C (2016). Behavioural activation written self-help to improve mood, wellbeing and quality of life in people with dementia supported by informal carers (PROMOTE): study protocol for a single-arm feasibility study. Pilot and Feasibility Studies
Norwich B, Koutsouris G, Fujita T, Ralph T, Adlam A, Milton F
(2016). Exploring knowledge bridging and translation in Lesson Study using an inter-professional team. International Journal of Lesson and Learning Studies
Exploring knowledge bridging and translation in Lesson Study using an inter-professional team
Purpose – it is argued that the issues of translating basic science, including knowledge from neuroscience, into relevant teaching are similar to those that have been experienced over a long period by educational psychology. This paper proposes that such a translation might be achieved through Lesson Study (LS), which is an increasingly used technique to stimulate teacher enquiry. To explore these issues, this paper presents the findings from a modified LS approach that involved psychologists and mathematics lecturers working together with school-based teachers to prepare a series of lessons on mathematics. Abstract
Design/methodology/approach – the LS team review and planning meetings and subsequent interviews were recorded and analysed for common themes, with reference to patterns of knowledge bridging. Particular attention was paid to translational issues and the kind of knowledge used.
Findings – Overall, there was some successful bridging between theory and practice, and evidence of translation of theoretical knowledge into relevant teaching practice. However, the analysis of the team’s interactions showed that relatively little involved a useful applied neuroscience/neuropsychology element, whereas other psychological knowledge from cognitive, developmental, educational and clinical psychology was considered more relevant to planning the LS.
Originality/value – This study illustrates how reference to brain functioning has currently little specific to contribute directly to school teaching, but it can arouse increased interest in psychological processes relevant to teaching and learning. This approach reaffirms the central role of teacher-led research in the relationship between theory and practice. The findings are also discussed in relation to the SECI model of knowledge creation.
Garrigan B, Adlam ALR, Langdon PE
(2016). The neural correlates of moral decision-making: a systematic review and meta-analysis of moral evaluations and response decision judgements. Brain Cogn
The neural correlates of moral decision-making: a systematic review and meta-analysis of moral evaluations and response decision judgements.
The aims of this systematic review were to determine: (a) which brain areas are consistently more active when making (i) moral response decisions, defined as choosing a response to a moral dilemma, or deciding whether to accept a proposed solution, or (ii) moral evaluations, defined as judging the appropriateness of another's actions in a moral dilemma, rating moral statements as right or wrong, or identifying important moral issues; and (b) shared and significantly different activation patterns for these two types of moral judgements. A systematic search of the literature returned 28 experiments. Activation likelihood estimate analysis identified the brain areas commonly more active for moral response decisions and for moral evaluations. Conjunction analysis revealed shared activation for both types of moral judgement in the left middle temporal gyrus, cingulate gyrus, and medial frontal gyrus. Contrast analyses found no significant clusters of increased activation for the moral evaluations-moral response decisions contrast, but found that moral response decisions additionally activated the left and right middle temporal gyrus and the right precuneus. Making one's own moral decisions involves different brain areas compared to judging the moral actions of others, implying that these judgements may involve different processes. Abstract
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Limond J, Adlam A-LR (2015). Cognitive Interventions for Children with Brain Injury. In (Ed) Neuropsychological Rehabilitation of Childhood Brain Injury, Palgrave Macmillan UK, 82-105.
Limond J, Adlam AR (2015). Cognitive interventions for children with brain injury. In Reed J, Byard K, Fine H (Eds.) Neuropsychological rehabilitation of childhood brain injury: a practical guide, Palgrave Macmillan, 82-105.
Limond J, Adlam ALR, Cormack M
(2014). A model for pediatric neurocognitive interventions: Considering the role of development and maturation in rehabilitation planning. Clinical Neuropsychologist
A model for pediatric neurocognitive interventions: Considering the role of development and maturation in rehabilitation planning
The need for post-acute neurorehabilitation after childhood acquired brain injury is increasingly recognized but recent reviews highlight the limited evidence-base and lack of a neuropsychological treatment model. Evidence from different fields was reviewed to inform the development of a pediatric neurocognitive interventions (PNI) model. The review included literature from child neuropsychology, adult neuropsychology, cognitive neuroscience, learning disabilities, education, and mental health. The resulting PNI model provides a systematic approach to delivering and evaluating appropriate care while minimizing the obstacles to successful outcomes. The model emphasizes the role of development and cognitive maturation in the planning of rehabilitation. Areas that represent significant gaps in our knowledge are discussed and future research directions are suggested based on predictions generated by the proposed model. © 2014 Taylor & Francis. Abstract
Gracey F, Watson S, McHugh M, Swan A, Humphrey A, Adlam A
(2014). Age at injury, emotional problems and executive functioning in understanding disrupted social relationships following childhood acquired brain injury. Social Care and Neurodisability
Age at injury, emotional problems and executive functioning in understanding disrupted social relationships following childhood acquired brain injury
Purpose – Clinically significant childhood acquired brain injury (ABI) is associated with increased risk of emotional and behavioural dysfunction and peer relationship problems. The purpose of this paper is to determine how emotional and peer related problems for children with ABI compare with those of children referred to mental health services, and to identify clinical predictors of peer relationship problems in a heterogeneous sample typical of a specialist community rehabilitation setting. Design/methodology/approach – Participants were 51 children with clinically significant ABI (32 traumatic brain injury; 29 male) referred for outpatient neuropsychological rehabilitation. Emotional, behavioural and social outcomes were measured using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), and executive functioning was measured with the Behaviour Rating Inventory of Executive Functions. Correlational analyses were used to explore variables associated with peer relationships. A subgroup (n=27) of children with ABI were compared to an age and sex matched mental health group to determine differences on SDQ subscales. Findings – the SDQ profiles of children with clinically significant ABI did not significantly differ from matched children referred to mental health services. Time since injury, peer relationship problems, metacognitive, and behavioural problems correlated with age at injury. These variables and SDQ emotional problems correlated with peer relationship problems. Linear multiple regression analysis indicated that only metacognitive skills remained a significant predictor of peer relationship problems, and metacognitive skills were found to significantly mediate between age at injury and peer relationship problems. Research limitations/implications – the study confirms the significant effect of childhood ABI on relationships with peers and mental health, those injured at a younger age faring worst. Within the methodological constraints of this study, the results tentatively suggest that age of injury influences later peer relationships via the mediating role of poor metacognitive skills within a heterogeneous clinical sample. Originality/value – This is the first study to examine the roles of emotional, behavioural and executive variables on the effect of age at injury on peer relationship problems in a sample with a wide range of ages and ages of injury Abstract
Stefanopoulou E, Hirsch CR, Hayes S, Adlam A, Coker S
(2014). Are attentional control resources reduced by worry in generalized anxiety disorder?. J Abnorm Psychol
Are attentional control resources reduced by worry in generalized anxiety disorder?
This is the first study to examine attentional control capacities in generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). GAD is characterized by uncontrollable worry. Individuals diagnosed with GAD and healthy participants (HPs) performed a random key-pressing task while thinking about a worrisome or a positive future event, to assess the extent to which attentional control resources are used by worry. Attentional control was also assessed when participants were not instructed to think about a specific topic using the N-back task, which varies in task difficulty, and therefore is sensitive to subtle differences in ability to handle increasing demands on attentional control within the same paradigm. GAD participants (but not HPs) were less random while worrying than thinking about a positive event during the key-pressing task, suggesting that worry consumed more attentional control resources in this population. During the N-Back task, GAD participants performed worse than HPs during the high load conditions only, indicating greater difficulty in sustaining focus on conditions requiring a higher degree of attentional control, even without concurrent task activity. Poor attentional control might underpin the difficulty of GAD individuals to stop worrying and switch to thinking more benign information. Further research could investigate whether worry consumes attentional control resources in other psychological disorders with high rates of worry (e.g. panic disorder, psychosis), as well as the extent to which attentional control is used by other forms of repetitive thinking, such as depressive rumination. Abstract
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Evans IEM, Kuzma E, Lang IA, Adlam AR, Llewellyn DJ (2014). P1‐345: WHICH BRIEF ASSESSMENT MEASURES FOR DEMENTIA ARE CURRENTLY RECOMMENDED FOR USE IN PRIMARY CARE? a SYSTEMATIC REVIEW. Alzheimer's & Dementia, 10(4S_Part_11).
Adlam ALR, de Haan M, Hodges JR, Patterson K
(2013). Memory for action sequences in semantic dementia. Neuropsychologia
Memory for action sequences in semantic dementia
Semantic dementia (SD) is associated with a progressive, relatively selective, degeneration of semantic memory (both verbal and nonverbal facts and knowledge). Episodic memory, however, is thought to be relatively preserved. This study aimed to further assess the nonverbal, incidental, episodic memory profile associated with SD using deferred imitation, which measures recall by the nonverbal imitation of novel action sequences after a 24-h delay. The performance of six individuals with SD was compared to that of 10 healthy age- and education-matched controls. After a baseline phase, where sets of objects were presented for manipulation to measure the spontaneous production of relevant action sequences, participants were shown eight novel three-step action sequences with the sets of objects. The component actions of the sequences were causally related in four of the eight series and arbitrarily related in the remaining four, to investigate the influence of sequence structure on memory performance. All participants produced more target actions and pairs in the arbitrary sequences 24-h after demonstration compared to baseline, indicating memory for the sequences, but only the control group showed significant memory for the order of the causal sequences (pairs). Furthermore, and perhaps more strikingly, only the control participants showed a recall advantage for the causal relative to the arbitrary sequences, indicating that they, but not the patients, could take advantage of the semantic nature of these sequences. Together these findings suggest that individuals with SD show some nonverbal episodic memory, even after a 24-h delay, and that new anterograde memory can to some extent be established without significant support from semantic memory. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Abstract
Simblett SK, Badham R, Greening K, Adlam A, Ring H, Bateman A
(2012). Validating independent ratings of executive functioning following acquired brain injury using Rasch analysis. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
Validating independent ratings of executive functioning following acquired brain injury using Rasch analysis
Assessment of everyday problems with executive functioning following acquired brain injury (ABI) is greatly valued by neurorehabilitation services. Reliance on self-report measures alone is problematic within this client group who may experience difficulties with awareness and memory. The construct validity and reliability of independent ratings (i.e. ratings provided by a carer/relative) on the Dysexecutive Questionnaire (DEX-I) was explored in this study. Consistent with the results recently reported on the self-rated version of the DEX (DEX-S; Simblett & Bateman, 2011), Rasch analysis completed on 271 responses to the DEX-I revealed that the scale did not fit the Rasch model and did not meet the assumption of unidimensionality, that is, a single underlying construct could not be found for the DEX-I that would allow development of an interval-level measure as a whole. Subscales, based on theoretical conceptualisations of executive functioning (Stuss, 2007) previously suggested for the DEX-S, were able to demonstrate fit to the Rasch model and unidimensionality. Reliability of independent responses to these subscales in comparison to self-reported ratings is discussed. These results contribute to a greater understanding of how assessment of executive functioning can be improved. © 2012 Copyright Psychology Press. Abstract
Adlam ALR, Malloy M, Mishkin M, Vargha-Khadem F (2010). Erratum to Dissociation between recognition and recall in developmental amnesia [Neuropsychologia 47, 11, 2207-2210]. Neuropsychologia, 48(6).
Adlam ALR, Patterson K, Bozeat S, Hodges JR
(2010). The cambridge semantic memory test battery: Detection of semantic deficits in semantic dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Neurocase
The cambridge semantic memory test battery: Detection of semantic deficits in semantic dementia and Alzheimer's disease
The aims of this study were (a) to explore the utility of, and make more widely available, an updated and extended version of the Cambridge Semantic Memory test battery, and (b) to use this battery in conjunction with other tests to characterise the profile of several different forms of progressive cognitive impairment: semantic dementia (SD, n = 15), mild cognitive impairment (MCI, n = 7), established Alzheimer's disease (AD) (n = 8), all in comparison to normal controls (n = 45). The semantic battery is useful in a variety of ways for exploring the nature of semantic deficits; on its own, however, it does not provide sensitive differentiation between patients with AD and SD. An assessment including measures of episodic memory and visuospatial abilities as well as the semantic battery is recommended for good characterisation of the cognitive profiles associated with SD and AD. © 2010 Psychology Press. Abstract
Adlam ALR, Patterson K, Hodges JR
(2009). "I remember it as if it were yesterday": Memory for recent events in patients with semantic dementia. Neuropsychologia
"I remember it as if it were yesterday": Memory for recent events in patients with semantic dementia
Patients with semantic dementia (SD), who have an incontrovertible deficit in semantic memory, are reported to show good day-to-day memory for recent events; but experimental evidence on their anterograde episodic memory/new learning is somewhat sparse and does not always tell a consistent story. We describe the performance of five SD patients, relative to controls, on (a) a range of semantic memory measures that predictably revealed substantial impairment, and (b) a newly designed naturalistic and incidental episodic task, which included information regarding the items and context of the semantic tasks. As a group, the patients' episodic memory for these natural events was good, even after a 24-h delay, although case-by-case analysis revealed some heterogeneity in performance. These findings are discussed with regard to the neural substrate of episodic memory and psychological models of long-term memory. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Abstract
Adlam ALR, Malloy M, Mishkin M, Vargha-Khadem F
(2009). Dissociation between recognition and recall in developmental amnesia. Neuropsychologia
Dissociation between recognition and recall in developmental amnesia
Developmental amnesia (DA) is a memory disorder due to hypoxia/ischaemia-induced damage to the hippocampus early in life. To test the hypothesis that this disorder is associated with a disproportionate impairment in recall vis-à-vis recognition, we examined a group of 10 patients with DA on the Doors and People test, which affords a quantitative comparison between measures of the two memory processes. The results supported the hypothesis in that the patients showed a sharp, though not complete, recall-recognition dissociation, exhibiting impairment on both measures relative to their matched controls, but with a far greater loss in recall than in recognition. Whether their relatively spared recognition ability is due to restriction of their medial temporal lobe damage to the hippocampus or whether it is due instead to their early age at injury is still uncertain. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. Abstract
Salmond CH, Adlam ALR, Gadian DG, Vargha-Khadem F
(2008). A comparison of memory profiles in relation to neuropathology in autism, developmental amnesia and children born prematurely. In (Ed) Memory in Autism
A comparison of memory profiles in relation to neuropathology in autism, developmental amnesia and children born prematurely
Hodges JR, Martinos M, Woollams AM, Patterson K, Adlam ALR
(2008). Repeat and Point: Differentiating semantic dementia from progressive non-fluent aphasia. Cortex
Repeat and Point: Differentiating semantic dementia from progressive non-fluent aphasia
To determine whether a new, simple, quick measure, the Repeat and Point test, reliably differentiates between semantic dementia (SD) and progressive non-fluent aphasia (PNFA). Fifteen patients with SD, six patients with PNFA and 18 healthy controls were administered the Repeat and Point test. Participants were required to repeat 10 multi-syllabic concrete nouns and, following each repetition, to point to the word's pictorial referent amongst an array of six semantically and perceptually similar foils. Patients with SD were consistently impaired relative to PNFA patients and controls on the comprehension (pointing) component of the task, whereas patients with PNFA showed no significant deficit on pointing but were impaired at the production (repeating) component. Discriminant function analysis confirmed perfect classification of the individual patients into their respective groups: criteria involving a ratio of the two scores are provided. The Repeat and Point test is particularly appropriate for routine use in a clinical context: it is quick and easy to administer and score; it reliably discriminated between the two patient groups, SD and PNFA; and it offers a simple rule of thumb, i.e. the Repeat-to-Point ratio, to aid in the diagnosis of these two language variants of frontotemporal dementia (FTD). © 2007 Elsevier Srl. All rights reserved. Abstract
Gray J, Yeo GSH, Cox JJ, Morton J, Adlam A-LR, Keogh JM, Yanovski JA, El Gharbawy A, Han JC, Tung YCL, et al
(2006). Hyperphagia, Severe Obesity, Impaired Cognitive Function, and Hyperactivity Associated with Functional Loss of One Copy of the Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (<i>BDNF</i>) Gene. Diabetes
Hyperphagia, Severe Obesity, Impaired Cognitive Function, and Hyperactivity Associated with Functional Loss of One Copy of the Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) Gene
The neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) inhibits food intake, and rodent models of BDNF disruption all exhibit increased food intake and obesity, as well as hyperactivity. We report an 8-year-old girl with hyperphagia and severe obesity, impaired cognitive function, and hyperactivity who harbored a de novo chromosomal inversion, 46,XX,inv(11)(p13p15.3), a region encompassing the BDNF gene. We have identified the proximal inversion breakpoint that lies 850 kb telomeric of the 5′ end of the BDNF gene. The patient’s genomic DNA was heterozygous for a common coding polymorphism in BDNF, but monoallelic expression was seen in peripheral lymphocytes. Serum concentration of BDNF protein was reduced compared with age- and BMI-matched subjects. Haploinsufficiency for BDNF was associated with increased ad libitum food intake, severe early-onset obesity, hyperactivity, and cognitive impairment. These findings provide direct evidence for the role of the neurotrophin BDNF in human energy homeostasis, as well as in cognitive function, memory, and behavior. Abstract
Adlam A-LR, Patterson K, Rogers TT, Nestor PJ, Salmond CH, Acosta-Cabronero J, Hodges JR
(2006). Semantic dementia and fluent primary progressive aphasia: two sides of the same coin?. Brain
(Pt 11), 3066-3080.
Semantic dementia and fluent primary progressive aphasia: two sides of the same coin?
Considerable controversy exists regarding the relationship between semantic dementia (SD) and progressive aphasia. SD patients present with anomia and impaired word comprehension. The widely used consensus criteria also include the need for patients to exhibit associative agnosia and/or prosopagnosia: many authors have used the label SD for patients with non-verbal, as well as verbal, semantic deficits on formal testing even if they recognize the objects and people encountered in everyday life; others interpret the criterion of agnosia to require pervasive recognition impairments affecting daily life. According to this latter view, SD patients have pathology that disrupts both a bilateral ventrotemporal-fusiform network (resulting in agnosia) and the left hemisphere language network (resulting in profound aphasia). These authors suggest that this profile is different to that seen in the fluent form of primary progressive aphasia (fPPA), a neurodegenerative disease primarily affecting language function. We present data on seven patients who met the diagnostic criteria for fPPA. All seven showed deficits relative to matched controls on both verbal and non-verbal measures of semantic memory, and these deficits were modulated by degree of anomia, concept familiarity and item typicality. Voxel-based morphometry revealed reduced grey matter density in the temporal lobes bilaterally (more widespread on the left), with the severity of atrophy in the left inferior temporal lobe being significantly related to performance on both the verbal and non-verbal measures. Together these findings suggest that patients who meet the diagnostic criteria for fPPA, can also meet the diagnostic criteria for early-stage SD provided that the impact of concept familiarity and typicality is taken into account. In addition, these findings support a claim that the patients' deficits on both verbal and non-verbal tasks reflect progressive deterioration of an amodal integrative semantic memory system critically involving the rostral temporal lobes, rather than a combination of atrophy in the left language network and a separate bilateral ventrotemporal-fusiform network. Abstract
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Adlam ALR, Bozeat S, Arnold R, Watson P, Hodges JR
(2006). Semantic knowledge in mild cognitive impairment and mild Alzheimer's disease. Cortex
Semantic knowledge in mild cognitive impairment and mild Alzheimer's disease
The aim of this study was to investigate memory in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). Ten patients with MCI, 11 with AD and a group of age and education matched healthy control participants were assessed on a comprehensive battery of semantic memory tests, including traditional semantic memory measures and a non-verbal test of knowledge of object use. The MCI group was impaired on tests of category fluency and all three conditions of an object knowledge test (matching to recipient, function and action), plus a difficult object-naming test. The mild AD group showed additional impairments on traditional measures of semantic memory, including naming high frequency items, comprehension and semantic association. Together these findings suggest that semantic memory impairments occur early in the course of AD, more specifically in patients with "amnesic" MCI, and provide further evidence that impaired category fluency reflects semantic breakdown. Abstract
Adlam ALR, Vargha-Khadem F, Mishkin M, De Haan M
(2005). Deferred imitation of action sequences in developmental amnesia. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Deferred imitation of action sequences in developmental amnesia
The aims of this study were to investigate whether patients with developmental amnesia (DA) associated with bilateral hippocampal volume reduction show an impairment in incidental nonverbal recall of action sequences, and whether the severity of this memory impairment is influenced by the sequence structure (causal vs. arbitrary). Like adult-onset cases of amnesia (McDonough, Mandler, McKee, & Squire, 1995), patients with DA did not differ significantly from their age-, sex-, and IQ-matched controls in spontaneous production of the sequences prior to modeling but recalled fewer target actions and action pairs than the control group after a 24-hour delay, independent of sequence structure. Unlike the patients with adult-onset amnesia, however, the patients with DA showed some memory for both types of sequences after a 24-hour delay. This difference in severity of memory impairment might reflect differences in extent of pathology and/or age at injury. Abstract
Adlam A (2005). From Acquisition to Deterioration of Semantic Knowledge: a Mechanistic Theory of Semantic Cognition. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 11(05).
Moffitt TE, Adlam A, Affleck G, Andreou P, Aquan-Assee J, Arseneault L, Baines R, Benkhada N, Cant L, Cartwright S, et al
(2002). Teen-aged mothers in contemporary Britain. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines
Teen-aged mothers in contemporary Britain
Background: This paper describes the circumstances of contemporary young mothers and their children from a nationally representative sample, and compares them to the circumstances of mothers who delayed childbearing beyond age 20. Methods: the participants are members of the Environmental Risk (E-risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, which follows an epidemiological sample of 1,116 women who became mothers in England and Wales in 1994-95, and their children, and contains an over-sample of young mothers. Home visits were conducted when the children were aged 5 years. Data were collected from mothers via interviews, from children via experimental tasks and observations, and from teachers via postal questionnaires. Results: Young mothers encountered more socio-economic deprivation, had significantly less human and social capital, and experienced more mental health difficulties. Their partners were less reliable and supportive, both economically and emotionally, and were more antisocial and abusive. The children of young mothers showed reduced educational attainment, were rated by multiple informants as having more emotional and behavioural problems, were at increased risk of maltreatment or harm, and showed higher rates of illnesses, accidents, and injuries. Conclusions: Young mothers today face difficulties known to have long-lasting effects for women and their children. Preventions that target young mothers may reduce harm to the physical health, mental health, and social status of future generations. Abstract
Baddeley A, Chincotta D, Adlam A
(2001). Working memory and the control of action: evidence from task switching. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General
Working memory and the control of action: evidence from task switching.
A series of 7 experiments used dual-task methodology to investigate the role of working memory in the operation of a simple action-control plan or program involving regular switching between addition and subtraction. Lists requiring switching were slower than blocked lists and showed 2 concurrent task effects. Demanding executive tasks impaired performance on both blocked and switched lists, whereas articulatory suppression impaired principally the switched condition. Implications for models of task switching and working memory and for the Vygotskian concept of verbal control of action are discussed. Abstract
Hughes C, Adlam A, Happé F, Jackson J, Taylor A, Caspi A (2000). Good Test—Retest Reliability for Standard and Advanced False-Belief Tasks across a Wide Range of Abilities. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 41(4), 483-490.
Hughes C, Adlam A, Happé F, Jackson J, Taylor A, Caspi A
(2000). Good test-retest reliability for standard and advanced false-belief tasks across a wide range of abilities. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines
Good test-retest reliability for standard and advanced false-belief tasks across a wide range of abilities
Although tests of young children's understanding of mind have had a remarkable impact upon developmental and clinical psychological research over the past 20 years, very little is known about their reliability. Indeed, the only existing study of test-retest reliability suggests unacceptably poor results for first-order false-belief tasks (Mayes, Klin, Tercyak, Cicchetti, and Cohen, 1996), although this may in part reflect the nonstandard (video-based) procedures adopted by these authors. The present study had four major aims. The first was to re-examine the reliability of false-belief tasks, using more standard (puppet and storybook) procedures. The second was to assess whether the test-retest reliability of false-belief task performance is equivalent for children of contrasting ability levels. The third aim was to explore whether adopting an aggregate approach improves the reliability with which children's early mental-state awareness can be measured. The fourth aim was to examine for the first time the test-retest reliability of children's performances on more advanced theory-of-mind tasks. Our results suggest that most standard and advanced false-belief tasks do in fact show good test-retest reliability and internal consistency, with very strong test-retest correlations between aggregate scores for children of all levels of ability. Abstract
Baddeley AD, Chincotta D, Adlam A (2000). Working Memory and Action Control: Evidence from Task Switching.