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Professor Mark Levine

Professor Mark Levine

Professor of Social Psychology

 6448

 Washington Singer 114

 

Washington Singer Laboratories, University of Exeter, Perry Road, Prince of Wales Road, Exeter, EX4 4QG, UK

Overview

I am a Professor of Social Psychology at the University of Exeter. My research focuses on the role of social identity in pro-social and anti-social behaviour.

My recent work, supported by both the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) and the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC), has examined the role of group processes in the regulation of perpetrator, victim and bystander behaviour during aggressive and violent events. This has included conducting a systematic behavioural analysis of CCTV footage of real life violent incidents in night-time economy zones in British town centres. It has also involved the use of Immersive Virtual Environments (‘virtual reality‘) to study the behaviour of bystanders in violent emergencies. By creating a virtual pub – and exposing football fans to violence between life sized avatars - we were able to reveal the role that social identities play in the willingness of bystanders to intervene in violence.

I am currently involved in 3 EPSRC funded projects exploring the role of identities and behavior in the digital age.  These are all interdisciplinary collaborations with colleagues from departments of psychology, computer science, engineering, mathematics, animation and robotics. The first (EP/J005053 Identiscope: multiple identities as a resource for understanding and impacting behaviour in the digital world) explores impact of social identity processes in online and offline behavior. The second (EP/K033433/1 (CeRes)- Privacy Dynamics: Learning from the Wisdom of Groups) examines the way group processes can shape privacy concerns and privacy behaviour. The third (EP/L00416 (Digital Personhood) Being There: Humans and Robots in Public Spaces (HARPS) uses accurate tracking and remote emotion sensing to explore contact amongst groups of humans, and also between humans and robots, and the effect this can have on social cohesion and intergroup relations.

Over the years I have secured more that £4.5 million in research finding including 4 EPSRC projects and 3 project grants from the ESRC. I am co-editor of the 2012 book Beyond the Prejudice Problematic: Extending the Social Psychology of Intergroup Conflict, Inequality and Social Change (with John Dixon). I have also published in Behavioral and Brain Sciences, Psychological Science, American Psychologist, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, British Journal of Social Psychology, European Journal of Social Psychology and many others.

Research

Research grants

  • 2012 dstl
    dstl award- NATIONAL UK 2012-PHD SCHEME Collective Action in the Digital Age: Social identities and the influence of online and offline behaviour.
  • 2011 EPSRC
    Identi-scope: Multiple identities as a resource for understanding and impacting behaviours in the digital world.

Publications

Key publications | Publications by category | Publications by year

Key publications


Slater M, Rovira A, Southern R, Swapp D, Zhang JJ, Campbell C, Levine M (2013). Bystander Responses to a Violent Incident in an Immersive Virtual Environment. PLoS ONE, 8(1). Abstract.  Full text.
Srinivasan N, Hopkins N, Reicher SD, Khan SS, Singh T, Levine M (2013). Social Meaning of Ambiguous Sounds Influences Retrospective Duration Judgments. Psychological science
Dixon J, Levine M (2012). Beyond Prejudice: Extending the Social Psychology of Conflict, Inequality and Social Change., Cambridge Univ Pr.
Dixon J, Levine M, Reicher, S, Durrheim K (2012). Beyond prejudice: Are negative evaluations the problem and is getting us to like one another more the solution?. Behavioral and Brain Sciences Abstract.  Full text.
Levine M, Taylor PJ, Best R (2011). Third parties, violence, and conflict resolution: the role of group size and collective action in the microregulation of violence. Psychol Sci, 22(3), 406-412. Abstract.  Author URL.
Levine M, Crowther S (2008). The responsive bystander: how social group membership and group size can encourage as well as inhibit bystander intervention. J Pers Soc Psychol, 95(6), 1429-1439. Abstract.  Author URL.

Publications by category


Books

Dixon J, Levine M (2012). Beyond Prejudice: Extending the Social Psychology of Conflict, Inequality and Social Change., Cambridge Univ Pr.

Journal articles

Wilkins DJ, Levine M, Livingstone A (In Press). All click, no action? Online action, efficacy perceptions, and prior experience combine to affect future collective action. Computers in Human Behavior Full text.
Stuart A, Levine M (In Press). Beyond ‘nothing to hide’: When identity is key to privacy threat under surveillance. European Journal of Social Psychology Full text.
Philpot R, Liebst LS, Møller KK, Lindegaard MR, Levine M (2019). Capturing violence in the night-time economy: a review of established and emerging methodologies. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 46, 56-65. Abstract.  Full text.
Philpot R, Liebst LS, Levine M, Bernasco W, Lindegaard MR (2019). Would I be helped? Cross-national CCTV footage shows that intervention is the norm in public conflicts. Am Psychol Abstract.  Author URL.  Full text.
Lindegaard MR, Liebst LS, Bernasco W, Heinskou MB, Philpot R, Levine M, Verbeek P (2017). Consolation in the aftermath of robberies resembles post-aggression consolation in chimpanzees. PLOS ONE, 12(5). Author URL.
Slater M, Rovira A, Southern R, Swapp D, Zhang JJ, Campbell C, Levine M (2013). Bystander Responses to a Violent Incident in an Immersive Virtual Environment. PLoS ONE, 8(1). Abstract.  Full text.
Srinivasan N, Hopkins N, Reicher SD, Khan SS, Singh T, Levine M (2013). Social Meaning of Ambiguous Sounds Influences Retrospective Duration Judgments. Psychological science
Levine M, Manning R (2013). Social identity, group processes, and helping in emergencies. European Review of Social Psychology, 24(1), 225-251. Abstract.
Levine M, Lowe R, Best R, Heim D (2012). 'We police it ourselves': Group processes in the escalation and regulation of violence in the night-time economy. European Journal of Social Psychology, 42(7), 924-932. Abstract.
Dixon J, Levine M, Reicher, S, Durrheim K (2012). Beyond prejudice: Are negative evaluations the problem and is getting us to like one another more the solution?. Behavioral and Brain Sciences Abstract.  Full text.
Dixon J, Levine M, Reicher S, Durrheim K (2012). Beyond prejudice: Relational inequality, collective action, and social change revisited. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 35(6), 451-466. Abstract.
Lowe RD, Levine M, Best RM, Heim D (2012). Bystander Reaction to Women Fighting: Developing a Theory of Intervention. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 27(9), 1802-1826. Abstract.
Palasinski M, Abell J, Levine M (2012). Intersectionality of ethno-cultural identities and construal of distant suffering outgroups. Qualitative Report, 17(9). Abstract.
Levine M, Lowe R, Best R, Heim D (2012). ‘We police it ourselves’: Group processes in the escalation and regulation of violence in the night-time economy. European Journal of Social Psychology Abstract.
Levine M, Taylor PJ, Best R (2011). Third parties, violence, and conflict resolution: the role of group size and collective action in the microregulation of violence. Psychol Sci, 22(3), 406-412. Abstract.  Author URL.
Levine M, Cassidy C, Jentzsch I (2010). The implicit identity effect: identity primes, group size, and helping. Br J Soc Psychol, 49(Pt 4), 785-802. Abstract.  Author URL.
Manning R, Levine M, Collins A (2008). The Legacy of the 38 Witnesses and the Importance of Getting History Right. American Psychologist, 63(6), 562-563.
Levine M, Crowther S (2008). The responsive bystander: how social group membership and group size can encourage as well as inhibit bystander intervention. J Pers Soc Psychol, 95(6), 1429-1439. Abstract.  Author URL.
Hopkins N, Reicher S, Harrison K, Cassidy C, Bull R, Levine M (2007). Helping to improve the group stereotype: on the strategic dimension of prosocial behavior. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 33(6), 776-788. Abstract.
Manning R, Levine M, Collins A (2007). The Kitty Genovese Murder and the Social Psychology of Helping: the Parable of the 38 Witnesses. American Psychologist, 62(6), 555-562. Abstract.
Dixon J, Levine M, McAuley R (2006). Locating impropriety: Street drinking, moral order, and the ideological dilemma of public space. Political Psychology, 27(2), 187-206. Abstract.
Reicher S, Cassidy C, Wolpert I, Hopkins N, Levine M (2006). Saving Bulgaria's Jews: an analysis of social identity and the mobilisation of social solidarity. European Journal of Social Psychology, 36(1), 49-72. Abstract.
Levine M, Prosser A, Evans D, Reicher S (2005). Identity and emergency intervention: how social group membership and inclusiveness of group boundaries shape helping behavior. Pers Soc Psychol Bull, 31(4), 443-453. Abstract.  Author URL.
Levine M, Thompson K (2004). Identity, place, and bystander intervention: social categories and helping after natural disasters. J Soc Psychol, 144(3), 229-245. Abstract.  Author URL.
Levine M (2003). Times, Theories and Practices in Social Psychology. Theory & Psychology, 13(1), 53-72. Abstract.
Levine M, Cassidy C, Brazier G, Reicher S (2002). Self-categorization and bystander non-intervention: Two experimental studies. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 32(7), 1452-1463. Abstract.
Levine RM (1999). Identity and illness: the effects of identity salience and frame of reference on evaluation of illness and injury. British Journal of Health Psychology, 4(1), 63-80. Abstract.
Levine M (1999). Rethinking bystander nonintervention: Social categorization and the evidence of witnesses at the James Bulger murder trial. Human Relations, 52(9), 1133-1155. Abstract.
Reicher S, Levine RM, Gordijn E (1998). More on deindividuation, power relations between groups and the expression of social identity: Three studies on the effects of visibility to the in-group. BRITISH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY, 37, 15-40. Author URL.
Hopkins N, Reicher S, Levine M (1997). On the parallels between social cognition and the 'new racism'. BRITISH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY, 36, 305-329. Author URL.
Levine RM, Reicher SD (1996). Making sense of symptoms: Self-categorization and the meaning of illness and injury. British Journal of Social Psychology, 35(2), 245-256. Abstract.
Levine RM, Reicher SD (1996). Making sense of symptoms: self-categorization and the meaning of illness and injury. The British journal of social psychology / the British Psychological Society, 35 Abstract.
Antaki C, Condor S, Levine M (1996). Social identities in talk: Speakers' own orientations. British Journal of Social Psychology, 35(4), 473-492. Abstract.
REICHER S, LEVINE M (1994). DEINDIVIDUATION, POWER RELATIONS BETWEEN GROUPS AND THE EXPRESSION OF SOCIAL IDENTITY - THE EFFECTS OF VISIBILITY TO THE OUT-GROUP. BRITISH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY, 33, 145-163. Author URL.
REICHER S, LEVINE M (1994). ON THE CONSEQUENCES OF DEINDIVIDUATION MANIPULATIONS FOR THE STRATEGIC COMMUNICATION OF SELF-IDENTIFIABILITY AND THE REPRESENTATION OF SOCIAL IDENTITY. EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY, 24(4), 511-524. Author URL.
WEBLEY P, LEVINE M, LEWIS A (1991). A STUDY IN ECONOMIC PSYCHOLOGY - CHILDRENS SAVING IN a PLAY ECONOMY. HUMAN RELATIONS, 44(2), 127-146. Author URL.

Chapters

Alexander Haslam S, Reicher SD, Levine M (2012). When other people are heaven, when other people are hell: How social identity determines the nature and impact of social support. In  (Ed) The Social Cure: Identity, Health and Well-Being, 157-174.
Levine M, Cassidy C (2009). Groups, Identities, and Bystander Behavior: How Group Processes can be Used to Promote Helping. In  (Ed) The Psychology of Prosocial Behavior: Group Processes, Intergroup Relations, and Helping, 209-222.

Conferences

Bremner P, Koschate M, Levine M (2016). Humanoid robot avatars: an 'in the wild' usability study.  Abstract.
Koschate M, Potter R, Bremner P, Levine M, ACM (2016). Overcoming the Uncanny Valley: Displays of Emotions Reduce the Uncanniness of Humanlike Robots.  Author URL.  Full text.
Koschate-Reis M, Potter R, Bremner P, Levine M (2016). Overcoming the uncanny valley: Displays of emotions reduce the uncanniness of humanlike robots. ACM/IEEE Internatonal Conference on Human-Robot Interaction (HRI). 7th - 10th Mar 2016. Abstract.  Full text.
Calikli G, Law M, Bandara AK, Russo A, Dickens L, Price BA, Stuart A, Levine M, Nuseibeh B (2016). Privacy Dynamics: Learning Privacy Norms for Social Software. 11th International Symposium on Software Engineering for Adaptive and Self-Managing Systems. 16th - 17th May 2016. Abstract.  Full text.
Stuart A, Levine M (2016). The threat to identities posed by arbitrary surveillance. International Society of Justice Research. 20th - 23rd Jul 2016. Abstract.  Full text.
Stuart A, Levine M (2015). When will people resist surveillance: First they need to notice it, then identify the source. International Society for Political Psychology. 21st - 26th Jun 2015. Abstract.  Full text.
Bremner P, Trigoni N, Brown I, Gunes H, Bevan C, Fraser DS, Levine M (2013). Being there: Humans and robots in public spaces.  Abstract.
Lea SEG, Webley P, Levine RM (1993). The economic psychology of consumer debt.  Abstract.

Publications by year


In Press

Wilkins DJ, Levine M, Livingstone A (In Press). All click, no action? Online action, efficacy perceptions, and prior experience combine to affect future collective action. Computers in Human Behavior Full text.
Stuart A, Levine M (In Press). Beyond ‘nothing to hide’: When identity is key to privacy threat under surveillance. European Journal of Social Psychology Full text.

2019

Philpot R, Liebst LS, Møller KK, Lindegaard MR, Levine M (2019). Capturing violence in the night-time economy: a review of established and emerging methodologies. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 46, 56-65. Abstract.  Full text.
Philpot R, Liebst LS, Levine M, Bernasco W, Lindegaard MR (2019). Would I be helped? Cross-national CCTV footage shows that intervention is the norm in public conflicts. Am Psychol Abstract.  Author URL.  Full text.

2017

Lindegaard MR, Liebst LS, Bernasco W, Heinskou MB, Philpot R, Levine M, Verbeek P (2017). Consolation in the aftermath of robberies resembles post-aggression consolation in chimpanzees. PLOS ONE, 12(5). Author URL.

2016

Bremner P, Koschate M, Levine M (2016). Humanoid robot avatars: an 'in the wild' usability study.  Abstract.
Koschate M, Potter R, Bremner P, Levine M, ACM (2016). Overcoming the Uncanny Valley: Displays of Emotions Reduce the Uncanniness of Humanlike Robots.  Author URL.  Full text.
Koschate-Reis M, Potter R, Bremner P, Levine M (2016). Overcoming the uncanny valley: Displays of emotions reduce the uncanniness of humanlike robots. ACM/IEEE Internatonal Conference on Human-Robot Interaction (HRI). 7th - 10th Mar 2016. Abstract.  Full text.
Calikli G, Law M, Bandara AK, Russo A, Dickens L, Price BA, Stuart A, Levine M, Nuseibeh B (2016). Privacy Dynamics: Learning Privacy Norms for Social Software. 11th International Symposium on Software Engineering for Adaptive and Self-Managing Systems. 16th - 17th May 2016. Abstract.  Full text.
Stuart A, Levine M (2016). The threat to identities posed by arbitrary surveillance. International Society of Justice Research. 20th - 23rd Jul 2016. Abstract.  Full text.

2015

Stuart A, Levine M (2015). When will people resist surveillance: First they need to notice it, then identify the source. International Society for Political Psychology. 21st - 26th Jun 2015. Abstract.  Full text.

2013

Bremner P, Trigoni N, Brown I, Gunes H, Bevan C, Fraser DS, Levine M (2013). Being there: Humans and robots in public spaces.  Abstract.
Slater M, Rovira A, Southern R, Swapp D, Zhang JJ, Campbell C, Levine M (2013). Bystander Responses to a Violent Incident in an Immersive Virtual Environment. PLoS ONE, 8(1). Abstract.  Full text.
Srinivasan N, Hopkins N, Reicher SD, Khan SS, Singh T, Levine M (2013). Social Meaning of Ambiguous Sounds Influences Retrospective Duration Judgments. Psychological science
Levine M, Manning R (2013). Social identity, group processes, and helping in emergencies. European Review of Social Psychology, 24(1), 225-251. Abstract.

2012

Levine M, Lowe R, Best R, Heim D (2012). 'We police it ourselves': Group processes in the escalation and regulation of violence in the night-time economy. European Journal of Social Psychology, 42(7), 924-932. Abstract.
Dixon J, Levine M (2012). Beyond Prejudice: Extending the Social Psychology of Conflict, Inequality and Social Change., Cambridge Univ Pr.
Dixon J, Levine M, Reicher, S, Durrheim K (2012). Beyond prejudice: Are negative evaluations the problem and is getting us to like one another more the solution?. Behavioral and Brain Sciences Abstract.  Full text.
Dixon J, Levine M, Reicher S, Durrheim K (2012). Beyond prejudice: Relational inequality, collective action, and social change revisited. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 35(6), 451-466. Abstract.
Lowe RD, Levine M, Best RM, Heim D (2012). Bystander Reaction to Women Fighting: Developing a Theory of Intervention. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 27(9), 1802-1826. Abstract.
Palasinski M, Abell J, Levine M (2012). Intersectionality of ethno-cultural identities and construal of distant suffering outgroups. Qualitative Report, 17(9). Abstract.
Alexander Haslam S, Reicher SD, Levine M (2012). When other people are heaven, when other people are hell: How social identity determines the nature and impact of social support. In  (Ed) The Social Cure: Identity, Health and Well-Being, 157-174.
Levine M, Lowe R, Best R, Heim D (2012). ‘We police it ourselves’: Group processes in the escalation and regulation of violence in the night-time economy. European Journal of Social Psychology Abstract.

2011

Levine M, Taylor PJ, Best R (2011). Third parties, violence, and conflict resolution: the role of group size and collective action in the microregulation of violence. Psychol Sci, 22(3), 406-412. Abstract.  Author URL.

2010

Levine M, Cassidy C, Jentzsch I (2010). The implicit identity effect: identity primes, group size, and helping. Br J Soc Psychol, 49(Pt 4), 785-802. Abstract.  Author URL.

2009

Levine M, Cassidy C (2009). Groups, Identities, and Bystander Behavior: How Group Processes can be Used to Promote Helping. In  (Ed) The Psychology of Prosocial Behavior: Group Processes, Intergroup Relations, and Helping, 209-222.

2008

Manning R, Levine M, Collins A (2008). The Legacy of the 38 Witnesses and the Importance of Getting History Right. American Psychologist, 63(6), 562-563.
Levine M, Crowther S (2008). The responsive bystander: how social group membership and group size can encourage as well as inhibit bystander intervention. J Pers Soc Psychol, 95(6), 1429-1439. Abstract.  Author URL.

2007

Hopkins N, Reicher S, Harrison K, Cassidy C, Bull R, Levine M (2007). Helping to improve the group stereotype: on the strategic dimension of prosocial behavior. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 33(6), 776-788. Abstract.
Manning R, Levine M, Collins A (2007). The Kitty Genovese Murder and the Social Psychology of Helping: the Parable of the 38 Witnesses. American Psychologist, 62(6), 555-562. Abstract.

2006

Dixon J, Levine M, McAuley R (2006). Locating impropriety: Street drinking, moral order, and the ideological dilemma of public space. Political Psychology, 27(2), 187-206. Abstract.
Reicher S, Cassidy C, Wolpert I, Hopkins N, Levine M (2006). Saving Bulgaria's Jews: an analysis of social identity and the mobilisation of social solidarity. European Journal of Social Psychology, 36(1), 49-72. Abstract.

2005

Levine M, Prosser A, Evans D, Reicher S (2005). Identity and emergency intervention: how social group membership and inclusiveness of group boundaries shape helping behavior. Pers Soc Psychol Bull, 31(4), 443-453. Abstract.  Author URL.

2004

Levine M, Thompson K (2004). Identity, place, and bystander intervention: social categories and helping after natural disasters. J Soc Psychol, 144(3), 229-245. Abstract.  Author URL.

2003

Levine M (2003). Times, Theories and Practices in Social Psychology. Theory & Psychology, 13(1), 53-72. Abstract.

2002

Levine M, Cassidy C, Brazier G, Reicher S (2002). Self-categorization and bystander non-intervention: Two experimental studies. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 32(7), 1452-1463. Abstract.

1999

Levine RM (1999). Identity and illness: the effects of identity salience and frame of reference on evaluation of illness and injury. British Journal of Health Psychology, 4(1), 63-80. Abstract.
Levine M (1999). Rethinking bystander nonintervention: Social categorization and the evidence of witnesses at the James Bulger murder trial. Human Relations, 52(9), 1133-1155. Abstract.

1998

Reicher S, Levine RM, Gordijn E (1998). More on deindividuation, power relations between groups and the expression of social identity: Three studies on the effects of visibility to the in-group. BRITISH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY, 37, 15-40. Author URL.

1997

Hopkins N, Reicher S, Levine M (1997). On the parallels between social cognition and the 'new racism'. BRITISH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY, 36, 305-329. Author URL.

1996

Levine RM, Reicher SD (1996). Making sense of symptoms: Self-categorization and the meaning of illness and injury. British Journal of Social Psychology, 35(2), 245-256. Abstract.
Levine RM, Reicher SD (1996). Making sense of symptoms: self-categorization and the meaning of illness and injury. The British journal of social psychology / the British Psychological Society, 35 Abstract.
Antaki C, Condor S, Levine M (1996). Social identities in talk: Speakers' own orientations. British Journal of Social Psychology, 35(4), 473-492. Abstract.

1994

REICHER S, LEVINE M (1994). DEINDIVIDUATION, POWER RELATIONS BETWEEN GROUPS AND THE EXPRESSION OF SOCIAL IDENTITY - THE EFFECTS OF VISIBILITY TO THE OUT-GROUP. BRITISH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY, 33, 145-163. Author URL.
REICHER S, LEVINE M (1994). ON THE CONSEQUENCES OF DEINDIVIDUATION MANIPULATIONS FOR THE STRATEGIC COMMUNICATION OF SELF-IDENTIFIABILITY AND THE REPRESENTATION OF SOCIAL IDENTITY. EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY, 24(4), 511-524. Author URL.

1993

Lea SEG, Webley P, Levine RM (1993). The economic psychology of consumer debt.  Abstract.

1991

WEBLEY P, LEVINE M, LEWIS A (1991). A STUDY IN ECONOMIC PSYCHOLOGY - CHILDRENS SAVING IN a PLAY ECONOMY. HUMAN RELATIONS, 44(2), 127-146. Author URL.

Mark_Levine Details from cache as at 2019-10-17 00:58:50

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External Engagement and Impact

Committee/panel activities

Member of the project Lead Expert Group (LEG) for the 2013 Government Office for Science Foresight report on Future Identities

Member of the ESRC Virtual Peer Review college

Teaching

Modules

2019/20

Information not currently available


Supervision / Group

Postdoctoral researchers

  • Huseyin Cakal EPRSC project - Humans and Robots in Public Places Now lecturer at Keele Psychology
  • Dr Claire Campbell (Ulster University)
  • Dr. Miriam Koschate-Reis (EPSRC - Identiscope project)

Postgraduate researchers

Alumni

  • Dr. Rob Lowe
  • Dr. Rachel Manning (ESRC award)
  • Dr. Marek Palasinski
  • Dr. Vanessa Trowell
  • Dr. Neil Wilson (ESRC award)

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