Publications by year
Barth M, Masson T, Fritsche I, Fielding K, Smith JR
(2021). Collective responses to global challenges: the social psychology of pro-environmental action. Journal of Environmental Psychology
Collective responses to global challenges: the social psychology of pro-environmental action
The world faces one of its greatest challenges in climate change. As a global challenge, climate change demands a global response. A psychological approach with the goal to motivate large groups to engage in concerted action will need both, a perspective focused on individual factors and a perspective focused on the collective factors. The social identity approach is a promising and underutilized theoretical basis for the latter. In this special issue, we have brought together new and thought-provoking work on the effects of collective-level variables on pro-environmental action that builds on the social identity approach. This editorial will introduce the core idea of the approach and it will argue for its advantages. We will summarize important previous work on some of the essential variables of the approach and we will briefly introduce the contributions to this special issue which will hopefully stimulate more work in the years ahead. Abstract
Neville FG, Templeton A, Smith JR, Louis WR
(2021). Social norms, social identities and the COVID-19 pandemic: Theory and recommendations. Social and Personality Psychology Compass
Social norms, social identities and the COVID-19 pandemic: Theory and recommendations
Sustained mass behaviour change is needed to tackle the COVID-19 pandemic, but many of the required changes run contrary to existing social norms (e.g. physical closeness with in-group members). This paper explains how social norms and social identities are critical to explaining and changing public behaviour. Recommendations are presented for how to harness these social processes to maximise adherence to COVID-19 public health guidance. Specifically, we recommend that public health messages clearly define who the target group is, are framed as identity-affirming rather than identity-contradictory, include complementary injunctive and descriptive social norm information, are delivered by in-group members and that support is provided to enable the public to perform the requested behaviours. Abstract
Burton K, Smith J
(2020). Slowing the Loop: the role of grief and hope in building new economic spaces. Creative Circular Economy Approaches to Eliminate Plastic Waste. 8th Jun - 9th Sep 2020.
Slowing the Loop: the role of grief and hope in building new economic spaces
Tarrant M, Smith J, Ball S, Winlove C, Gul S, Charles N
(2019). Alcohol consumption among university students in the night-time economy in the UK: a three-wave longitudinal study. Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Alcohol consumption among university students in the night-time economy in the UK: a three-wave longitudinal study
Background: Excessive alcohol consumption is commonly reported in university/college students, and contributes to emerging peer-group relations. Purpose: This study aimed to provide up-to-date longitudinal data on students’ alcohol consumption patterns, and predictors of this, across a single academic year. Methods: a 3-wave study was conducted at a university in the UK. Participants reported their alcohol consumption patterns, along with perceptions of the social norms and behavioral expectations associated with attending licensed venues where alcohol is sold (the “night time economy”). Participants also reported their social identification with this environment. Results: Around half of participants overall fell into the three higher alcohol-risk categories (moderate, high or hazardous drinking). A modest reduction in consumption was observed across the study. At each assessment point, males reported greater alcohol consumption in the preceding two months than females, while Year 4 students and those on graduate-entry programs reported the lowest consumption. Excessive alcohol consumption was regarded as largely normative within the night time economy, both descriptively (“what others do”) and injunctively (“what others approve of”). Social identification and norm perceptions, along with gender, year group, and intoxication and socialising expectations, were significantly associated with higher alcohol consumption at baseline. However, baseline consumption was the only variable significantly associated with alcohol use at the end of the academic year. Conclusions: Many students drink alcohol at potentially harmful levels, and norms and expectations supporting this consumption are prominent and stable. The findings support a targeted approach to intervention that accounts for heterogeneity in the student population. Abstract
Boulton CA, Hughes E, Kent C, Smith JR, Williams HTP
(2019). Student engagement and wellbeing over time at a higher education institution. PLoS One
Student engagement and wellbeing over time at a higher education institution.
Student engagement is an important factor for learning outcomes in higher education. Engagement with learning at campus-based higher education institutions is difficult to quantify due to the variety of forms that engagement might take (e.g. lecture attendance, self-study, usage of online/digital systems). Meanwhile, there are increasing concerns about student wellbeing within higher education, but the relationship between engagement and wellbeing is not well understood. Here we analyse results from a longitudinal survey of undergraduate students at a campus-based university in the UK, aiming to understand how engagement and wellbeing vary dynamically during an academic term. The survey included multiple dimensions of student engagement and wellbeing, with a deliberate focus on self-report measures to capture students' subjective experience. The results show a wide range of engagement with different systems and study activities, giving a broad view of student learning behaviour over time. Engagement and wellbeing vary during the term, with clear behavioural changes caused by assessments. Results indicate a positive interaction between engagement and happiness, with an unexpected negative relationship between engagement and academic outcomes. This study provides important insights into subjective aspects of the student experience and provides a contrast to the increasing focus on analysing educational processes using digital records. Abstract
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Larrabee Sønderlund A, Hughes E, Smith J
(2019). The efficacy of learning analytics interventions in higher education: a systematic review. British Journal of Educational Technology
The efficacy of learning analytics interventions in higher education: a systematic review
Educational institutions are increasingly turning to learning analytics to identify and intervene with students at risk of underperformance or discontinuation. However, the extent to which the current evidence base supports this investment is currently unclear, and particularly so in relation to the effectiveness of interventions based on predictive models. The aim of the present paper was to conduct a systematic review and quality assessment of studies on the use of learning analytics in higher education, focusing specifically on intervention studies. Search terms identified 689 papers, but only 11 studies evaluated the effectiveness of interventions based on learning analytics. These studies highlighted the potential of such interventions, but the general quality of the research was moderate, and left several important questions unanswered. The key recommendation based on this review is that more research into the implementation and evaluation of scientifically driven learning analytics is needed to build a solid evidence base for the feasibility, effectiveness and generalizability of such interventions. This is particularly relevant when considering the increasing tendency of educational institutions around the world to implement learning analytics interventions with only little evidence of their effectiveness. Practitioner Notes What is already known about this topic? Drop-out rates and underachivement is a significant issue at most Western universities. Learning analytics have been shown to predict student performance and risk of dropping out. Interventions based on learning analytics have emerged in recent years, some reportedly successful. What this paper adds the paper also reviews and synthesizes the evidence on the effectiveness of learning analytics interventions targeting student underperformance, experience and discontinuation. The paper compares and contrasts past and current learning analytics methods and foci, and makes recommendations for the future research and practice. It critically synthesizes the current evidence base on learning analytics interventions, which is a field that is in constant flux and development. Implications for practice and/or policy the paper focuses on an increasing part of higher education with the goal of validating learning analytics methods and usefulness. The paper makes evidence-based recommendations for institutions wishing to implement learning analytics programs and/or interventions. The paper makes evidence-based recommendations for instructors as well as researchers in the field. Abstract
Imhoff R, Smith J, van Zomeren M
(2018). Editorial: Opening up to openness. EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
(1), 1-3. Author URL
Smith JR, Louis WR, Abraham C
(2018). When and how does normative feedback reduce intentions to drink irresponsibly? an experimental investigation. Addiction Research and Theory
When and how does normative feedback reduce intentions to drink irresponsibly? an experimental investigation
Objectives: to test the effects of exposure to a campaign to discourage drinking alcohol drinks down in one gulp (‘bolting’). Method: Laboratory experiments assessed the effects of exposure to (1) the campaign (Pilot Study; N = 48), (2) the campaign combined with an injunctive norm message of explicit peer disapproval of bolting (Study 1; N = 78), and (3) the campaign and a descriptive norm message of low prevalence of bolting (Study 2; N = 96) on both normative perceptions of bolting and bolting intentions. Results: the Pilot Study showed that the campaign had no effect on norm perceptions or bolting intentions. In Study 1, the campaign was associated with higher, not lower, intentions to bolt drinks, an effect exacerbated by the injunctive norm information. Bootstrapping analyzes of the indirect effects showed that participants perceived that bolting was more common when exposed to the campaign combined with the injunctive norm, and these negative descriptive norm perceptions were associated with stronger bolting intentions. In contrast, Study 2 showed that addition of the descriptive norm (i.e. low prevalence information) enhanced the effectiveness of the campaign. Conclusions: the results highlight the potentially harmful effects of exposure to an injunctive norm message of disapproval information and distinguish them from the beneficial impact of exposure to a descriptive norm message of low prevalence. The importance of pre-testing campaigns and providing process evaluations is discussed. Abstract
Plows SE, Smith FD, Smith JR, Chapman CM, La Macchia ST, Louis WR
(2017). Healthy eating: a beneficial role for perceived norm conflict?. Journal of Applied Social Psychology
Healthy eating: a beneficial role for perceived norm conflict?
Normative influence on dietary decision making was assessed as a function of the referent informational influence model within an extended theory of planned behavior framework. In a longitudinal design, university students (N = 141) completed measures of attitudes, perceived behavioral control, subjective norms, referent group norms, and intentions toward healthy eating, with healthy eating behavior reported 2 weeks later (n = 82). A distinction was made between injunctive and descriptive norms, in line with norm focus theory. The extended theory of planned behavior and referent informational influence models were partially supported. An interaction between group injunctive and descriptive norms emerged such that misaligned group norms were associated with healthier eating behavior than aligned group norms (both supportive and unsupportive). Theoretical and applied implications are discussed. Abstract
Tarrant M, Smith J, Louis W (2017). University students’ social identity and health behaviour. In Mavor K, Platow M, Bizumic B (Eds.) Self, Social Identity and Education, London: Routledge.
Onu D, Kessler T, Smith JR
(2016). Admiration: a Conceptual Review. Emotion Review
Admiration: a Conceptual Review
Admiration is thought to have essential functions for social interaction: it inspires us to learn from excellent models, to become better people, and to praise others and create social bonds. In intergroup relations, admiration for other groups leads to greater intergroup contact, cooperation, and help. Given these implications, it is surprising that admiration has only been researched by a handful of authors. In this article we review the literature, focusing on the definition of admiration, links to related emotions, measurement, antecedents, and associated behaviors. We propose a conceptual model of admiration that highlights admiration’s function for approaching and emulating successful models, thus contributing to social learning at the interpersonal level and to cultural transmission at the group and societal level. Abstract
Sønderlund AL, Smith JR, Hutton CJ, Kapelan Z, Savic D
(2016). Effectiveness of smart meter-based consumption feedback in curbing household water use: Knowns and unknowns. Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management
Effectiveness of smart meter-based consumption feedback in curbing household water use: Knowns and unknowns
Adaptive approaches are required to counteract the mounting threats to water security. Demand management will feature centrally in such adaptations. The increase in the use of smart-meter technology offers an improved way for utilities to gauge consumer demand and to supply consumers with consumption feedback in (near) real time. Such feedback can decrease the discrepancies between perceived and actual water usage. In contrast to the energy sector, however, where the advantages associated with smart-meter consumption feedback are extensively documented, few studies have focused on the usefulness of such feedback when it comes to managing water consumption. This review assesses the evidence base for the effectiveness of water-usage feedback technology in encouraging water conservation. The review highlights the potential value of high-granularity smart-meter feedback technology in managing domestic water consumption. Findings from the papers covered in this review (N=21) indicate that feedback was associated with decreases in water use of between 2.5 and 28.6%, with an average of 12.15% (SD=8.75). A single paper reported a 16% increase in consumption associated with smart-meter feedback. The benefits for water utilities are highlighted, but the costs for utilities need to be considered further. Overall, more work is needed to conclusively pinpoint the most effective type of feedback in terms of information content and granularity, frequency of delivery and medium, and how water consumption is linked to energy consumption. This information is needed to make concrete recommendations to the water industry about the costs and benefits of investment in smart metering and consumer feedback. Abstract
Onu D, Kessler T, Andonovska-Trajkovska D, Fritsche I, Midson GR, Smith JR
(2016). Inspired by the outgroup: a social identity analysis of intergroup admiration. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations
Inspired by the outgroup: a social identity analysis of intergroup admiration
Drawing upon a social identity approach, three studies focus on the elicitors of intergroup admiration by investigating the relationship between admiration for an outgroup and this outgroup’s prototypicality for a superordinate category. In Study 1 (N = 314), we find empirical support for a positive association between prototypicality and admiration in cross-national survey data. In Study 2 (N = 52), we provide experimental evidence for the relationship between admiration and prototypicality by manipulating different facets of prototypicality: admiration for an outgroup occurs only when the group is perceived as prototypical in relation to the ideal of the superordinate category, but not in relation to the category average. Study 3 further explores the importance of prototypicality for a superordinate category. We present an analysis of online comments to news articles (N = 477) referring to positive regard of outgroups and highlight the role of prototypicality in these discussions. Overall, we contribute to research on admiration by showing that the elicitation of admiration is dependent on the social identities involved, providing an identity-situated analysis of this positive group-based emotion. Abstract
Amiot CE, de la Sablonniere R, Smith LGE, Smith JR
(2015). Capturing changes in social identities over time and how they become part of the self-concept. Social and Personality Psychology Compass
Capturing changes in social identities over time and how they become part of the self-concept
How people come to develop a feeling of belongingness to a new social group and orchestrate this new group membership with pre-existing identities within the self-concept is a theoretically and socially relevant phenomenon that has received increased scientific attention in recent years. Models from different fields of psychology - including social, cultural, and organizational psychology - have proposed factors involved in this change and integration process along with consequences of this phenomenon. We present overview of this literature, including a recent model on the process of identity integration: the cognitive-developmental model of social identity integration. Specifically, this model highlights the fundamental cognitive and developmental processes involved as people develop new social identifications and integrate their different identities into their overall self-concept. We then present recent empirical evidence testing the model. Finally, we propose conceptual, methodological, and statistical avenues for future research on identity change and integration. Abstract
Ribeiro R, Loureiro D, Barateiro J, Smith JR, Rebelo M, Kossieris P, Gerakopoulou P, Makropoulos C, Vieira P, Mansfield L, et al
(2015). Framework for technical evaluation of decision support systems based on water smart metering: the iWIDGET case.
Framework for technical evaluation of decision support systems based on water smart metering: the iWIDGET case
Onu D, Smith JR, Kessler T
(2015). Intergroup emulation: an improvement strategy for lower-status groups. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations
Intergroup emulation: an improvement strategy for lower-status groups
The social psychological literature on social change has focused on how groups overcome oppression and inequality. In this paper, we investigate an alternative strategy that groups employ for social change—the emulation of successful outgroups. We propose that lower status group members will be likely to employ a learning strategy when they perceive the status relations as legitimate (i.e. fair system) and unstable (i.e. own position is improvable). In Study 1 (Romanian undergraduate students, N = 31), we manipulated status legitimacy, while in Study 2 (British undergraduate participants, N = 94), we manipulated legitimacy and stability orthogonally. Overall, when they perceived status hierarchies as legitimate and unstable, participants exhibited higher admiration for the higher status outgroup, higher support for learning-related help (e.g. transfer of know-how, training) from the outgroup and had the most positive attitudes toward intergroup help. We propose that social change sometimes occurs gradually, through help and learning from successful models, and this paper offers insight into such gradual social change. Abstract
Greenaway KH, Louis WR, Parker SL, Kalokerinos EK, Smith JR, Terry DJ
(2015). Measures of Coping for Psychological Well-Being. In (Ed) Measures of Personality and Social Psychological Constructs
Measures of Coping for Psychological Well-Being
Smith LGE, Amiot CE, Smith JR, Callan VJ, Terry DJ (2014). A social validation and coping model of identity development: a longitudinal test. Journal of Management, 39, 1952-1978.
Staunton M, Louis WR, Smith JR, Terry DJ, Mcdonald RI
(2014). How negative descriptive norms for healthy eating undermine the effects of positive injunctive norms. Journal of Applied Social Psychology
How negative descriptive norms for healthy eating undermine the effects of positive injunctive norms
Healthy eating intentions were assessed as a function of theory of planned behavior variables and manipulated group norm salience. Participants (n=119) were exposed (or not) to a positive injunctive norm that their fellow students approve of eating healthily, and (or not) to a negative descriptive norm that their fellow students do not eat healthily. A significant interaction emerged. When a negative descriptive norm was made salient, participants exposed to a positive injunctive norm reported significantly lower intentions to eat healthily. When no descriptive norm was given, exposure to a positive injunctive norm had no effect. The results suggest the weakness of manipulated injunctive norm salience in the health domain, and the importance of investigating the interactive effects of referent group norms. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Abstract
Saeri AK, Ogilvie C, La Macchia ST, Smith JR, Louis WR
(2014). Predicting facebook users online privacy protection: Risk, trust, norm focus theory, and the theory of planned behavior. Journal of Social Psychology
Predicting facebook users online privacy protection: Risk, trust, norm focus theory, and the theory of planned behavior
The present research adopts an extended theory of the planned behavior model that included descriptive norms, risk, and trust to investigate online privacy protection in Facebook users. Facebook users (N = 119) completed a questionnaire assessing their attitude, subjective injunctive norm, subjective descriptive norm, perceived behavioral control, implicit perceived risk, trust of other Facebook users, and intentions toward protecting their privacy online. Behavior was measured indirectly 2 weeks after the study. The data show partial support for the theory of planned behavior and strong support for the independence of subjective injunctive and descriptive norms. Risk also uniquely predicted intentions over and above the theory of planned behavior, but there were no unique effects of trust on intentions, nor of risk or trust on behavior. Implications are discussed. © Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Abstract
Rebelo M, Smith JR, Menezes M
(2014). Prioritizing use cases for water smart technology development: Similarities and differences from Portugal and UK case studies.
Prioritizing use cases for water smart technology development: Similarities and differences from Portugal and UK case studies
Rebelo M, Smith JR, Menezes M
(2014). Prioritizing use cases for water smart technology development: Similarities and differences from Portugal and UK case studies.
Prioritizing use cases for water smart technology development: Similarities and differences from Portugal and UK case studies
Lipp OV, Craig BM, Frost MJ, Terry DJ, Smith JR
(2014). Searching for emotion or race: Task-irrelevant facial cues have asymmetrical effects. Cognition and Emotion
Searching for emotion or race: Task-irrelevant facial cues have asymmetrical effects
Facial cues of threat such as anger and other race membership are detected preferentially in visual search tasks. However, it remains unclear whether these facial cues interact in visual search. If both cues equally facilitate search, a symmetrical interaction would be predicted; anger cues should facilitate detection of other race faces and cues of other race membership should facilitate detection of anger. Past research investigating this race by emotional expression interaction in categorisation tasks revealed an asymmetrical interaction. This suggests that cues of other race membership may facilitate the detection of angry faces but not vice versa. Utilising the same stimuli and procedures across two search tasks, participants were asked to search for targets defined by either race or emotional expression. Contrary to the results revealed in the categorisation paradigm, cues of anger facilitated detection of other race faces whereas differences in race did not differentially influence detection of emotion targets. © 2013 Taylor & Francis. Abstract
Greenaway KH, Louis WR, Parker S, Kalokerinos EK, Smith JR, Terry DJ (2014). Successful coping for psychological well-being. In Boyle G, Saklofske DH, Matthews G (Eds.) Measures of Personality and Social Psychological Constructs, Oxford: Elsevier, 322-351.
Bodimeade H, Anderson E, La Macchia S, Smith JR, Terry DJ, Louis WR
(2014). Testing the direct, indirect, and interactive roles of referent group injunctive and descriptive norms for sun protection in relation to the theory of planned behavior. JOURNAL OF APPLIED SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
(11), 739-750. Author URL
Molenberghs P, Bosworth R, Nott Z, Louis WR, Smith JR, Amiot CE, Vohs KD, Decety J
(2014). The Influence of Group Membership and Individual Differences in Psychopathy and Perspective Taking on Neural Responses When Punishing and Rewarding Others. HUMAN BRAIN MAPPING
(10), 4989-4999. Author URL
Sønderlund AL, Smith JR, Hutton C, Kapelan Z
(2014). Using smart meters for household water consumption feedback: Knowns and unknowns.
Using smart meters for household water consumption feedback: Knowns and unknowns
Artis L, Smith JR
(2013). Emergency department staff attitudes toward people who self-harm: exploring the influences of norms and identity. Adv Emerg Nurs J
Emergency department staff attitudes toward people who self-harm: exploring the influences of norms and identity.
Patients who self-harm report negative staff attitudes toward them on presentation to an emergency department. Applying a thematic framework analysis to interviews with 10 staff members from one emergency department, the present research explored staff attitudes and behaviors (their own and the perception of others') and the impact of these attitudes on behavior, and the role of team identification and norms. Located within an overarching theme of balancing difference and diversity in relation to patients who self-harm, analysis identified themes related to beliefs about self-harm, the perceived barriers and facilitators to working effectively with patients, and the importance of identity, culture, and roles. Analysis also revealed the presence of pluralistic ignorance, whereby individuals perceive that others' (negative) actions reflect stable (negative) attitudes but do not perceive this for themselves. Thus, increasing knowledge and awareness of pluralistic ignorance may be a useful addition to training to minimize feelings of failure and frustration and increase understanding and improve patient care. Abstract
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Smith JR, Terry DJ (2013). Norms theory. In Kessler EH (Ed) Encyclopedia of Management Theory, London: Sage, 508-511.
Haslam SA, Smith JR (2012). An introduction to classic studies in social psychology. In Smith JR, Haslam SA (Eds.) Social psychology: Revisiting the classic studies, Sage, 1-10.
Smith JR, Terry DJ (2012). Attitudes and behaviour: Revisiting LaPiere's hospitality study. In Smith JR, Haslam SA (Eds.) Social psychology: Revisiting the classic studies, Sage, 27-41.
Liu S, Liesch P, Smith JR, Ren Y, Gallois C (2012). Communicating through networks: Chinese business people’s views on engaging in business with foreign firms. China Media Research, 8, 86-94.
Smith JR, Louis WR, Terry DJ, Greenaway K, Clarke M, Cheng X (2012). Congruent or conflicted: the impact of injunctive and descriptive norms on environmental intentions. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 32, 353-363.
Smith LGE, Amiot CE, Callan VJ, Terry DJ, Smith JR
(2012). Getting new staff to stay: the mediating role of organizational identification. British Journal of Management
Getting new staff to stay: the mediating role of organizational identification
Newcomer turnover is a major cost to organizations, and the quality of new employees' experiences in the first few months is critical in determining whether they decide to stay or leave. In a study that focused on the first stage of newcomer socialization, we investigate the impact of perceptions of social validation from the team and the team leader, and perceived fairness of treatment on newcomers' identification with their work team and the organization, specifically measuring the group self-investment components of identification. The mediating role of these levels of group self-investment and of the imbalance (i.e. difference) between levels of self-investment on turnover intentions was also tested. New staff (N=569) joining a large public-sector organization completed a questionnaire about their socialization experiences in their first 6 months of their employment. Structural equation modelling revealed that social validation by the team and team leaders, and fairness of treatment, predict increased investment with the organization and with the team. Organizational-level self-investment and an imbalance in favour of investment with the organization over that of the team mediated decreases in turnover intentions. We conclude that organizations should provide newcomers with validation that promotes identification with their organization during this critical stage of socialization. © 2010 the Author(s). British Journal of Management © 2010 British Academy of Management. Abstract
Smith JR, Haslam SA (2012). Social psychology: Revisiting the classic studies., Sage.
Reicher SD, Haslam SA, Smith JR (2012). Working towards the experimenter: Reconceptualizing obedience within the Milgram paradigm as identification-based followership. Perspectives in Psychological Science, 7, 315-324.
Lipp OV, Mallan KM, Martin FH, Terry DJ, Smith JR (2011). Electro-cortical implicit race bias: it is fast and does not vary with participants’ race or sex. Social Cognitive Affective Neuroscience, 6, 591-601.
Smith JR, Louis WR, Schultz PW (2011). Introductory: Social influence in action. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 14(5), 599-604.
Liu S, Smith JR, Liesch P, Gallois C, Ren Y (2011). Through the lenses of culture: Chinese consumers’ intentions to purchase imported products. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 42, 1237-1250.
Smith, J.R. (2010). Informational influence. In Levine J, Hogg MA (Eds.) Encyclopedia of Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, London: Sage, 442-445.
Smith, J.R. (2010). Minimal group effect. In Levine J, Hogg MA (Eds.) Encyclopedia of Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, London: Sage, 555-557.
Smith, J.R. (2010). Need for closure. In Levine J, Hogg MA (Eds.) Encyclopedia of Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, London: Sage, 597-599.
Smith, J.R. (2010). Referent informational influence. In Levine J, Hogg MA (Eds.) Encyclopedia of Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, London: Sage, 687-689.
Loh J, Smith JR, Restubog SLD
(2010). The Role of Culture, Workgroup Membership, and Organizational Status on Cooperation and Trust an Experimental Investigation. J APPL SOC PSYCHOL
The Role of Culture, Workgroup Membership, and Organizational Status on Cooperation and Trust an Experimental Investigation
We examined how interactions among participants' cultural backgrounds (e g, Australian vs Singaporean) and multiple subgroups (e g, cultural group member ship workgroup membership organizational status) affect trust and cooperation in the workplace University students (120 Australians, 120 Singaporeans) responded to hypothetical scenarios of cooperation and trust in the workplace the results indicated that for both Australians and Singaporeans trust and cooperation were more strongly influenced by workgroup membership and organizational status than by cultural group membership Participants trusted and cooperated more with work in group members than with work out group members and trusted and cooperated more with superiors than with peers Theoretical implications are discussed Abstract
Smith JR, Liu S, Liesch P, Gallois C, Yi R, Daly S (2010). The role of behavioral, normative, and control beliefs in the consumption of Australian products and services by Chinese consumers. Australasian Marketing Journal, 18, 206-213.
Smith JR, Louis WR
(2009). Group norms in the attitude-behaviour relationship. Social and Personality Psychology Compass
Group norms in the attitude-behaviour relationship
Despite popular opinion to the contrary, early scientific evidence pointed to a lack of support for the view that people’s actions are guided by their attitudes. One response to the lack of correspondence between attitudes and behaviour has been to consider the role of other factors. One factor that has received attention is norms – the unwritten and often unspoken rules for how we should behave. We present an overview of the social identity approach to attitude–behaviour relations, which argues that norms play a significant role in the attitude–behaviour relationship if and only if the norms come from salient and important reference groups. We will then discuss a program of research that supports this analysis and examines the motivations that underpin group-mediated attitude–behaviour consistency. Finally, we will discuss research that investigates the distinction between descriptive group norms (what group members do) and injunctive group norms (what group members approve of). We focus on how the interactions between these types of norms can inform behaviour change campaigns. Abstract
Lipp OV, Terry DJ, Smith JR, Tellegen CL, Kuebbeler J, Newey M
(2009). Searching for differences in race – is there evidence for preferential detection of other-race faces?. Emotion
Searching for differences in race – is there evidence for preferential detection of other-race faces?
Previous research has suggested that like animal and social fear-relevant stimuli, other-race faces (African American) are detected preferentially in visual search. Three experiments using Chinese or Indonesian faces as other-race faces yielded the opposite pattern of results: faster detection of same-race Abstract
faces among other-race faces. This apparently inconsistent pattern of results was resolved by showing that Asian and African American faces are detected preferentially in tasks that have small stimulus sets and employ fixed target searches. Asian and African American other-race faces are found slower among Caucasian face backgrounds if larger stimulus sets are used in tasks with a variable mapping of stimulus
to background or target. Thus, preferential detection of other-race faces was not found under task conditions in which preferential detection of animal and social fear-relevant stimuli is evident. Although consistent with the view that same-race faces are processed in more detail than other-race faces, the current findings suggest that other-race faces do not draw attention preferentially.
White KM, Smith JR, Terry DJ, Greenslade JH, McKimmie BM
(2009). Social influence in the theory of planned behaviour: the role of descriptive, injunctive, and ingroup norms. British Journal of Social Psychology
Social influence in the theory of planned behaviour: the role of descriptive, injunctive, and ingroup norms.
The present research investigated three approaches to the role of norms in the theory Abstract
of planned behaviour (TPB). Two studies examined the proposed predictors of
intentions to engage in household recycling (Studies 1 and 2) and reported recycling
behaviour (Study 1). Study 1 tested the impact of descriptive and injunctive norms
(personal and social) and the moderating role of self-monitoring on norm–intention
relations. Study 2 examined the role of group norms and group identification and the
moderating role of collective self on norm–intention relations. Both studies
demonstrated support for the TPB and the inclusion of additional normative variables:
attitudes; perceived behavioural control; descriptive; and personal injunctive norms (but
not social injunctive norm) emerged as significant independent predictors of intentions.
There was no evidence that the impact of norms on intentions varied as a function of the
dispositional variables of self-monitoring (Study 1) or the collective self (Study 2). There
was support, however, for the social identity approach to attitude–behaviour relations
in that group norms predicted recycling intentions, particularly for individuals who
identified strongly with the group. The results of these two studies highlight the critical
role of social influence processes within the TPB and the attitude–behaviour context.
Smith JR, Louis WR
(2008). Do as we say and as we do: the interplay of descriptive and injunctive group norms in the attitude-behaviour relationship. British Journal of Social Psychology
Do as we say and as we do: the interplay of descriptive and injunctive group norms in the attitude-behaviour relationship
Past research on the social identity approach to attitude–behaviour relations has operationalized group norms as a mixture of both descriptive information (i.e. what most people do themselves) and injunctive information (i.e. what most people approve of). Two experiments (Study 1 = 185 participants; Study 2 = 238 participants) were conducted to tease apart the relative effects of descriptive and injunctive group norms. In both studies, university students’ attitudes towards current campus issues Abstract
were obtained, the descriptive and injunctive group norms were manipulated, and participants’ post-manipulation attitudes, behavioural willingness, and behaviour were assessed. Study 2 also examined the role of norm source (i.e. in-group vs. out-group injunctive and descriptive norms). In both studies, the injunctive and descriptive in-group norms interacted significantly to influence attitudes, behavioural willingness, and behaviour. Study 2 revealed that out-group norms were largely ineffective. The research illustrates that in-groups interactively influence decisions, not only by what they say, but also by what they do, and asserts the value of considering the
interaction of descriptive and injunctive norms in accounts of normative influence.
Lipp OV, Martin FH, Terry DJ, Smith JR, Mallan KM
(2008). Electro-cortical implicit race bias: it is fast and independent of participants' race or sex. Author URL
Terry DJ, Smith, J.R. (2008). Self-identity. In Jr WAD (Ed) International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, MacMillan, 417-420.
Mallan KM, Lipp OV, Smith JR, Terry DJ, Hess U (2008). Sex and race modulate early attentional and late emotional processing of happy and angry faces: Evidence from an ERP study. 48th Annual Meeting of the Society-for-Psychophysiological-Research.
Smith JR, Hogg, M.A. (2008). Social identity and attitudes. In Crano W, Prislin R (Eds.) Attitudes and attitude change, Psychology Press, 337-360.
Hornsey MJ, Robson E, Smith J, Esposo S, Sutton RM
(2008). Sugaring the pill: Assessing rhetorical strategies designed to minimize defensive reactions to group criticism. HUM COMMUN RES
Sugaring the pill: Assessing rhetorical strategies designed to minimize defensive reactions to group criticism
People are considerably more defensive in the face of group criticism when the criticism comes from an out-group rather than an in-group member (the intergroup sensitivity effect). We tested three strategies that out-group critics can use to reduce this heightened defensiveness. In all studies, Australians received criticism of their country either from another Australian or from a foreigner. In Experiment 1, critics who attached praise to the criticism were liked more and agreed with more than were those who did not. In Experiment 2, out-group critics were liked more and aroused less negativity when they acknowledged that the problems they identified in the target group were shared also by their own in-group. In both experiments, the ameliorative effects of praise and acknowledgment were fully mediated by attributions of constructiveness. Experiment 3 tested the strategy of spotlighting; that is, of putting on the record that you intend your comments to apply to just a portion of the group rather than to the whole group. This strategy-which did not directly address the attributional issues that are presumed to underpin the intergroup sensitivity effect-proved ineffective. Practical and theoretical implications for intergroup communication are discussed. Abstract
Smith JR, Terry DJ, Manstead ASR, Louis WR, Kotterman D, Wolfs J
(2008). The attitude-behavior relationship in consumer conduct: the role of norms, past behavior, and self-identity. Journal of Social Psychology
The attitude-behavior relationship in consumer conduct: the role of norms, past behavior, and self-identity
The authors used a revised planned behavior model in the consumer domain. The revised model incorporated separate measures of descriptive and injunctive/prescriptive norms, self-identity, and past behavior in an effort to improve the predictive power of the theory of planned behavior (TPB; I. Ajzen, 1985) in relation to a self-reported consumer behavior: purchasing one’s preferred soft drink. At Time 1, Abstract
respondents (N = 112) completed self-report measures of (a) attitudes, (b) perceived
behavioral control, (c) descriptive and injunctive/prescriptive norms, (d) self-identity,
(e) past behavior, and (f) intentions. The authors assessed self-reported behavior 1 week later (Time 2). Attitudes, injunctive/prescriptive norms, descriptive norms, past behavior, and self-identity were all positively related to purchase intentions, and intentions were predictive of self-reported behavior at Time 2. These findings highlight the
utility of the TPB in the consumer domain.
Hogg MA, Smith, J.R.
(2007). Attitudes in social context: a social identity perspective. European Review of Social Psychology
Attitudes in social context: a social identity perspective.
Research on attitudes and attitude phenomena occupies a central place in social psychology, but tends to focus mainly on cognitive, intra-individual, and interpersonal dimensions. The normative, group membership, and identity Abstract
dimensions of attitudes tend to attract less attention. This article approaches attitudes from the perspective of research on group processes, intergroup relations, and social identity, and conceptualises attitudes and attitude phenomena in terms of their group normative properties and dynamics. Our
perspective is explicitly framed and focused by contemporary social identity theory—a theory that has a great deal to contribute to attitude research, but often does not talk directly about attitudes. We discuss attitudinal influence
and change, how people perceive normative attitudes, and how attitudes relate to action.
Smith JR, McSweeney, A.
(2007). Charitable giving: the effectiveness of a revised Theory of Planned Behaviour model in predicting donating intentions and donating behaviour. Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology
Charitable giving: the effectiveness of a revised Theory of Planned Behaviour model in predicting donating intentions and donating behaviour
A revised theory of planned behaviour (TPB) model was used to determine the influence of attitudes, norms (injunctive, descriptive and moral norms), perceived behavioural control, and past behaviour on intentions to donate money to charitable organisations. Respondents (N=227) completed a questionnaire assessing the constructs of the revised TPB model. Four weeks later, a subsample of respondents (N=67) reported their donating behaviour. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed support for the revised TPB model. Attitudes, perceived behavioural control, injunctive norms, moral norms and past behaviour all predicted charitable giving intentions; however, Abstract
descriptive norms did not predict donating intentions. Donating intentions were the only significant predictor of donating behaviour at Time 2. In addition, a number of beliefs differentiated between those who did and did not intend to donate to charity. Theoretical and applied implications of the results are discussed.
Hornsey MJ, Smith, J.R. Begg, D.
(2007). Effects of norms among those with moral conviction: Counter-conformity emerges on intentions but not behaviors. Social Influence
Effects of norms among those with moral conviction: Counter-conformity emerges on intentions but not behaviors
Previous research has shown that people with a strong moral basis for their attitude show stronger intentions to publicly act in line with their attitude when they are led to believe they are in a minority as compared to a majority. The current paper examines whether this evidence for counter-conformity can be replicated on speaking-out behaviors as well as intentions. Participants were told that they were either in a minority or in a majority in terms of their attitude toward a government apology to Australian Aborigines (Experiment 1: N = 100) and legalizing voluntary euthanasia (Experiment 2: N = 169). On intentions to speak out, participants with a strong moral basis for their attitude counter-conformed, whereas those with a weak moral basis for their attitude were not influenced by the group norm. On behaviors, however, evidence for counter-conformity disappeared. In Experiment 2, the influence of norms on both intentions and behaviors were moderated by perceptions of whether the status quo was likely or unlikely to change in line with participants' attitudes. Results are discussed with reference to theory and research on normative influence. Abstract
Amiot CE, de la Sablonnière R, Terry DJ, Smith JR
(2007). Integration of social identities into the self: Towards a cognitive-developmental model. Personality and Social Psychology Review
Integration of social identities into the self: Towards a cognitive-developmental model
This article presents a model of social identity development and integration in the self. Classic intergroup theories (e.g. social identity theory, self-categorization theory) address the situational, short-term changes in social identities. Although these theories identify the contextual and environmental factors that explain situational changes in social identification, the intraindividual processes underlying developmental changes in social identities and their integration within the self remain to be identified. Relying on recent intergroup models as well as on developmental (i.e. neo-Piagetian) and social cognitive frameworks, this article proposes a four-stage model that explains the specific processes by which multiple social identities develop intraindividually and become integrated within the self over time. The factors that facilitate versus impede these identity change processes and the consequences associated with social identity integration are also presented. Abstract
Smith JR, Terry DJ, Manstead ASR, Louis WR, Kotterman D, Wolfs J
(2007). Interaction effects in the theory of planned behavior: the interplay of self-identity and past behavior. J APPL SOC PSYCHOL
Interaction effects in the theory of planned behavior: the interplay of self-identity and past behavior
This research used a revised theory of planned behavior (TPB) model, which incorporated self-identity and past behavior-and the interaction between these constructs-in order to improve the model's predictive power in relation to consumer behavior (purchasing one's preferred beer). At Time 1, respondents (N = 108) completed measures of attitudes, perceived behavioral control, subjective norm, self-identity, past behavior, and intentions. Behavior was assessed 1 week later. All predictors were positively related to intentions. Self-identity and past behavior interacted to influence intentions: Self-identity had a stronger influence on intentions at low, rather than high, levels of past behavior. Intentions and past behavior were predictive of Time 2 behavior. These findings emphasize the need to consider identity issues in the TPB. Abstract
Martin R, Martin PY, Smith JR, Hewstone M
(2007). Majority versus minority influence and prediction of behavioral intentions and behavior. J EXP SOC PSYCHOL
Majority versus minority influence and prediction of behavioral intentions and behavior
Two experiments examined the effects of majority and minority influence on attitude-consistent behavioral intentions. In the first experiment, when attitudes were changed via minority influence there was a greater likelihood to engage in an attitude-consistent behavioral intention than when attitudes were changed via majority influence. This suggests that minority influence leads to stronger attitudes (based on systematic processing) that are more predictive of behavioral intentions, while attitude change via majority influence is due to compliance through non-systematic processing. Further support for this interpretation comes from the finding that the amount of message-congruent elaboration mediated behavioral intention. When there was no attitude change, there was no impact on behavioral intention to engage in an attitude-consistent behavior. Experiment 2 explored the role of personal relevance of the topic and also included a real behavioral measure. When the topic was of low personal relevance, the same pattern was found as Experiment 1. When the topic was of high personal relevance, thus increasing the motivation to engage in systematic processing, attitudes changed by both a majority and minority source increased behavioral intention and actual behavior. The results are consistent with the view that both majorities and minorities can lead to different processes and consequences under different situations. (C) 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Abstract
Louis WR, Davies S, Smith JR, Terry DJ
(2007). Pizza and pop and the student identity: the role of referent group norms in healthy and unhealthy eating. Journal of Social Psychology
Pizza and pop and the student identity: the role of referent group norms in healthy and unhealthy eating
Using the Theory of Planned Behavior (I. Ajzen, 1985, 1991) and referent group (student) norms and identification (D. J. Terry & M. A. Hogg, 1996), the authors longitudinally predicted healthy eating intentions and behavior in a sample of 137 university students. Specifically, attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived control predicted intentions at Time 1, which predicted self-reported behavior at Time 2. There was also a link between intentions and observed behavior at Time 2. Beyond the planned behavior variables, referent group norms for university students' eating behavior interacted with participants' identification as students to predict healthy eating intentions. The authors discussed implications for researcher's conceptualization of normative influence and for interventions into this group's eating behavior. Abstract
Smith JR, Terry DJ, Hogg MA
(2007). Social identity and the attitude-behaviour relationship: Effects of anonymity and accountability. European Journal of Social Psychology
Social identity and the attitude-behaviour relationship: Effects of anonymity and accountability
Two experiments examined the impact of anonymity and accountability on the expression of group-mediated attitude-behaviour consistency. In Study 1, low and high identifiers (N=106) were exposed to an attitude-congruent norm and provided information about their intentions under anonymous and ingroup accountable conditions. In Study 2, salience of identity was manipulated, and participants (N=185) were exposed to either an attitude-congruent or an attitude-incongruent norm, and provided Abstract
information on their intentions and behaviour under anonymous and in-group accountable conditions. In both studies, accountability elicited group-normative attitudes and behaviour among individuals for whom the group was not a salient basis for self-definition. When the group was a salient basis for selfdefinition,
the expression of attitude-consistent intentions and behaviour was greater in anonymous
conditions. It is suggested that strategic effects, such as those that occur in the presence of an in-group audience, influence displays of group-normative attitude–behaviour consistency.
Hornsey MJ, Frederiks, E. Smith, J.R. Ford, L.
(2007). Strategic defensiveness: Public and private responses to group criticism. British Journal of Social Psychology
Strategic defensiveness: Public and private responses to group criticism
This paper explores the strategic processes associated with responding to group criticism. In Experiment 1, Australians received criticism of their country from either an in-group or an out-group member. When participants believed their evaluations of the criticisms were private, they reported being more defensive when criticized by an outgroup relative to an in-group member. However, this intergroup sensitivity effect disappeared on some measures when participants were led to believe their evaluations of the criticisms could be seen by an in-group audience. In Experiment 2, which focused on participants’ identity as social science students, the attenuation of the intergroup sensitivity effect emerged only when the in-group audience was relatively high-status. Abstract
Furthermore, in both experiments, increased reports of defensiveness in public only
occurred in response to an in-group critic and not to an out-group critic. Theoretical
and practical implications for intergroup and intragroup communication are discussed.
Smith JR, Hogg, M.A. Martin, R. Terry, D.J. (2007). Uncertainty and the influence of group norms in the attitude-behaviour relationship. British Journal of Social Psychology, 46, 769-792.
Terry DJ, Pelly RN, Lalonde RN, Smith JR
(2006). Predictors of cultural adjustment: Intergroup status relations and boundary permeability. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations
Predictors of cultural adjustment: Intergroup status relations and boundary permeability
We examined intergroup predictors of cultural adjustment among Asian international students Abstract
in Australia. Sociostructural beliefs (status, legitimacy, and permeability) and initial adjustment were assessed (N = 113) at Time 1, and measures of adjustment were obtained (N = 80) at Time 2 eight weeks later. International students who perceived their cultural group to be relatively low in status experienced lower levels of psychological adjustment. Also, as expected, the effects of status were moderated by perceptions of both the permeability of intergroup boundaries and the legitimacy of the status differential. At high levels of legitimacy, perceptions of permeable
group boundaries were associated with better psychological, sociocultural, and academic
adjustment among international students perceiving their group to be low in status, but lower levels of adjustment among students who perceived their group to be high in status. At low levels of legitimacy, irrespective of group status position, perceived permeability was not related to adjustment.
Smith JR, Terry DJ, Hogg MA
(2006). Who will see me? the impact of type of audience on willingness to display group-mediated attitude-intention consistency. Journal of Applied Social Psychology
Who will see me? the impact of type of audience on willingness to display group-mediated attitude-intention consistency
The present study examined the role that group norms, group identification, and imagined audience (in-group vs. out-group) play in attitude–behavior processes. University students (N=187) participated in a study concerned with the prediction of consumer behavior. Attitudes toward drinking their preferred beer, subjective Abstract
norm, perceived behavioral control, group norm, and group identification were assessed. Intentions and perceived audience reactions to consumption were assessed. As expected, group norms, identification, and imagined audience
interacted to influence likelihood of drinking one’s preferred beer and perceived audience reactions. High identifiers were more responsive to group norms in the presence of an in-group audience than an out-group audience. The present results indicate that audience concerns impact upon the relationship between attitudes and behavior.
Hornsey MJ, Blackwood L, Louis W, Fielding K, Mavor K, Morton T, O'Brien A, Paasonen KE, Smith J, White K, et al
(2006). Why do people engage in collective action? Revisiting the role of perceived effectiveness. Journal of Applied Social Psychology
Why do people engage in collective action? Revisiting the role of perceived effectiveness.
Research has shown limited support for the notion that perceived effectiveness of collective action is a predictor of intentions to engage in collective action. One reason may be that effectiveness has been in terms of whether the action will influence key decision makers. We argue that the effectiveness of collective action might be judged by other criteria, such as whether it influences third parties, builds an oppositional movement, and expresses values. Two hundred and thirty one attendees at a rally rated the effectiveness of the rally and their intentions to engage in future collective action. For those participants who were not members of an organization, intentions were linked to the perceived effectiveness of the rally in expressing values and influencing the public. For those who were members of an organization, intentions were linked only to the effectiveness of the rally in building an oppositional movement. Abstract
Reid SA, Gunter HN, Smith JR
(2005). Aboriginal self-determination in Australia - the effects of minority-majority frames and target universalism on majority collective guilt and compensation attitudes. HUM COMMUN RES
Aboriginal self-determination in Australia - the effects of minority-majority frames and target universalism on majority collective guilt and compensation attitudes
In the context of Aboriginal-Anglo Australian relations, we tested the effect of framing (multiculturalism versus separatism) and majority group members' social values (universalism) on the persuasiveness of Aboriginal group rhetoric, majority collective guilt, attitudes toward compensation, and reparations for Aboriginals. As predicted, Anglo Australians who are low on universalism report more collective guilt when presented with a multiculturalist than a separatist Aboriginal frame, whereas those high on universalism report high levels of guilt independent of frame. The same pattern was predicted and found for the persuasiveness of the rhetoric and attitudes toward compensation. Our data suggest that (a) for individuals low in universalism, framing produces attitudes consonant with compensation because it produces collective guilt and (b) the reason that universalists are more in favor of compensation and reparation is because of high collective guilt. We discuss the strategic use of language to create power through the manipulation of collective guilt in political contexts. Abstract
Smith JR, Terry DJ, Crosier T, Duck JM
(2005). The importance of the relevance of the issue to the group in attitude-intention consistency. Basic and Applied Social Psychology
The importance of the relevance of the issue to the group in attitude-intention consistency
A questionnaire was distributed on the Australian republic issue to examine the interplay between norms and relevance of the issue to the group on voting intentions. Supporters of an Australian republic (N = 188) indicated the level of support for a republic within their peer group, the relevance of the republic issue to the group, and measures designed to assess voting intentions and other attitude outcomes. Analysis revealed an interaction between normative support and relevance of the issue to the group. On the measure of intention, increasing normative support was associated with increased intention to vote in an attitude-consistent way at both relevance levels, but the effect was heightened when the issue was highly relevant to the group. On the outcomes of willingness to express opinion and perceived personal importance of the republic issue, normative support had a positive effect only when the issue was highly relevant to the group. Mediation analyses revealed that the impact of normative support and group relevance on intention were mediated through perceived personal importance of the republic issue. Abstract
Smith JR, Terry DJ
(2003). Attitude-behaviour consistency: the role of group norms, attitude accessibility and mode of behavioural decision-making. European Journal of Social Psychology
Attitude-behaviour consistency: the role of group norms, attitude accessibility and mode of behavioural decision-making
The interplay between two perspectives that have recently been applied in the attitude area—the Abstract
social identity approach to attitude-behaviour relations (Terry & Hogg, 1996) and the MODE model
(Fazio, 1990a)—was examined in the present research. Two experimental studies were conducted to examine the role of group norms, group identification, attitude accessibility, and mode of behavioural decision-making in the attitude-behaviour relationship. In Study 1 (N=211), the effects of norms and
identification on attitude-behaviour consistency as a function of attitude accessibility and mood were investigated. Study 2 (N=354) replicated and extended the first experiment by using time pressure to manipulate mode of behavioural decision-making. As expected, the effects of norm congruency varied as a function of identification and mode of behavioural decision-making. Under conditions assumed to promote deliberative processing (neutral mood/low time pressure), high identifiers behaved in a
manner consistent with the norm. No effects emerged under positive mood and high time pressure conditions. In Study 2, there was evidence that exposure to an attitude-incongruent norm resulted in
attitude change only under low accessibility conditions. The results of these studies highlight the powerful role of group norms in directing individual behaviour and suggest limited support for the MODE model in this context.