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Professor Adam Zeman

Professor Adam Zeman

Professor of Cognitive and Behavioural Neurology


 01392 726152



Prof. Zeman trained in Medicine at Oxford University Medical School, after a first degree in Philosophy and Psychology, and later in Neurology in Oxford, at The National Hospital for Neurology in Queen Square, London and Addenbrooke’s Hospital, Cambridge. He moved to Edinburgh in 1996, as a Consultant and Senior Lecturer (later Reader) in the Department of Clinical Neurosciences and to the Peninsula Medical School (now University of Exeter Medical School) in September 2005 as Professor of Cognitive and Behavioural Neurology. His specialised clinical work is in cognitive and behavioural neurology, including neurological disorders of sleep.

His main research interests are disorders of visual imagery and forms of amnesia occurring in epilepsy. He has an active background interest in the science and philosophy of consciousness, publishing a wide-ranging review of the field in Brain (2001; 124:1263-1289) and an accessible introduction to the subject for a general readership (Consciousness: a user’s guide, Yale University Press, 2002). In 2008 he published an introduction to neurology for the general reader, A Portrait of the Brain (Yale UP), and in 2012, Epilepsy and Memory (OUP) with Narinder Kapur and Marilyn Jones-Gotman.

From 2007-2010 he was Chairman of the British Neuropsychiatry Association. He launched and continues to direct its training course in neuropsychiatry.

Broad research specialisms

  • Cognitive Neurology, especially:
    • memory disorders associated with epilepsy, including Transient Epileptic Amnesia, accelerated long-term forgetting and autobiographical amnesia
    • disorders of visual imagery
  • Neurological disorders of sleep
  • Case studies in neuropsychiatry
  • Conceptual issues in the relationship between neurology and psychiatry, mind and brain




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Research interests

  • Visual imagery: experience, behaviour, neuroscience. The vividness of visual imagery varies greatly between individuals, and can be affected by neurological and psychiatric disorders. With colleagues in Edinburgh, he coined the term ‘aphantasia’ in 2015 to describe the absence of a mind’s eye. Extensive resulting publicity has led to many thousands of contacts, allowing a large database of individuals with aphantasia to be developed and its opposite hyperphantasia. He is currently investigating their neuropsychological associations and neural basis.
  • Transient Epileptic Amnesia: temporal lobe epilepsy can give rise to episodes of transient amnesia, often occurring on waking and frequently associated with ‘non-standard’ forms of memory impairment: autobiographical amnesia, topographical amnesia and accelerated long term forgetting. His team has investigated these through the TIME project since 2003.
  • Dementia: epilepsy, neuropsychology, brain imaging. His NHS Cognitive Disorders Clinic is linked to the Devon Memory Clinic service. As a counterpart to the TIME study, which investigates memory impairment occurring in epilepsy, he has recently launched a study investigating epilepsy occurring in dementia with Dr John Baker, a Clinical Fellow funded by the Alzheimer Society, and colleagues in the Memory Clinic Service (the PRESIDE study). He is collaborating with Prof Nick Fox in London and Dr Alicia Smith in Plymouth to test the hypothesis that accelerated long-term forgetting may be an early feature in Alzheimer’s disease. Following a recent audit study showing that valuable diagnostic information is often omitted from radiological reports on patients with dementia, He is collaborating in a service improvement project with Dr William Mukonoweshuro in Plymouth.
  • Neurological sleep disorders: these disorders, which include causes of excessive sleepiness such as narcolepsy, parasomnias, such as sleep-walking and chronic insomnia have been neglected in British medical education and by clinical services. He is collaborating in a nationwide study of the provision of sleep education and has recently completed an audit of the work of his Sleep Disorders Clinic. This field of research is wide open to enthusiastic youngsters – please contact him!
  • Single cases in neuropsychiatry: although these belong to an ancient tradition, single case reports remain powerful tools in the exploration of fascinating areas of cognitive neuroscience. His recent papers of the neural correlates of Cotard’s syndrome and aphantasia, and on psychogenic déjà vu illustrate their potential.
  • Brain and mind: all these topics speak to the fundamental question of the relationship between brain and mind, the ‘problem of consciousness’. They speak also to the corresponding relationship between neurology, the medical specialty involved in caring for disorder of the brain, and psychiatry, the specialty involved in caring for disorders of the mind. He has written on these topics in the past and will continue to explore them further. 

Research projects

  • The Eye’s Mind: This project investigates visual imagination, in particular variations in the vividness of visual imagery and their neural basis.
  • The TIME project (The Impairment of Memory in Epilepsy): This project focuses on Transient Epileptic Amnesia and the associated phenomena of accelerated long-term forgetting and autobiographical amnesia.
  • The prevalence and clinical features of epilepsy in dementia and mild cognitive impairment – collaboration with the Devon Memory clinics: the PrESiDe Study coordinated by Dr John Baker
  • Accelerated Forgetting in pre-symptomatic familial Alzheimer’s disease – collaboration with Prof Nick Fox, Institute of Neurology, London (see Lancet Neurology 2018)
  • Accelerated Forgetting in Alzheimer’s disease and subjective memory complaints: Assessing rate of forgetting using the Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination – collaboration with Dr Alicia Smith and Dr Rupert Noad, Plymouth.
  • Establishing normative values for long-term forgetting – collaboration with Dr Chris Butler, Oxford 
  • Enhancing the accuracy of the reporting of dementia scans: a service improvement study – collaboration with Dr William Mukonoweshuro (Plymouth). 
  • Reclaiming words in everyday life: App based word retraining for people with Semantic Dementia – collaboration with Dr Sharon Savage (Exeter). 
  • Cognition and behaviour in adult iDEND – collaboration with Prof Andrew Hattersley, Exeter. 
  • Effects of Methylphenidate on Attention and Executive Function (2015-)  – collaboration with Dr Chris Dodds, Psychology, Exeter.
  • Sleep education in the UK – collaboration with Ms Stephanie Romiszewski (Exeter), Dr Greg Stores (Oxford), Dr Michelle Miller (Warwick).


  • AHRC £99,983 (2018) Extreme Imagination in Mind, Brain and Culture (Impact and Engagement Award). Principle applicant.
  • Alzheimer’s Society Doctoral Training Centre £450,000 (2016-19) Multi-disciplinary study of dysfunctional brain networks in dementia. Co-investigator and supervisor of clinical training fellow.
  • Dunhill Medical Trust £179,343 (2014-2017) Transient Epileptic Amnesia: causation, prognosis and the benefits of treatment.
  • ​Royal Devon and Exeter Trust small grant award £7,766 (2015-16) Sleep education in the medical profession: where are we now? Chief investigator and supervisor of research fellow.
  • Institutional Strategic Support Fund, Centre for Biomedical Modelling and Analysis, Exeter £6,314 (2015-2016)  Improving diagnostic accuracy in Transient Epileptic Amnesia using computational models of EEG. Principle applicant.
  • Art and Humanities Research Council £80,000 (2014-2016) The eye’s mind – a study of the neural basis of visual imagination and its roles in culture.


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Zeman A, Kapur N, Jones-Gotman M (2012). Epilepsy and Memory - a comprehensive multi-author review of the interactions between epilepsy and memory. , Oxford University Press. Abstract.
Zeman A (2008). A Portrait of the Brain. London, Yale University Press.
Zeman A (2002). Consciousness: a User's Guide. Yale, Yale University Press.

Journal articles

Zeman A (In Press). Blind Mind's Eye. American Scientist Magazine Abstract.
Knight K, Milton F, Zeman A (In Press). Memory without Imagery: No Evidence of Visual Working Memory Impairment in People with Aphantasia. Proceedings of the Cognitive Science Society
Zeman A, MacKisack M, Aldworth S, MacPherson F, Onians J, Winlove C (In Press). plural imagination: diversity in mind and making. Art Journal
Zeman A (2024). Aphantasia and hyperphantasia: exploring imagery vividness extremes. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 28(5), 467-480.
Monzel M, Mitchell D, Macpherson F, Pearson J, Zeman A (2022). Aphantasia, dysikonesia, anauralia: call for a single term for the lack of mental imagery-Commentary on Dance et al. (2021) and Hinwar and Lambert (2021). Cortex, 150, 149-152. Abstract.  Author URL.
Savage SA, Baker J, Milton F, Butler CR, Zeman A (2022). Clinical outcomes in Transient Epileptic Amnesia: a 10-year follow-up cohort study of 47 cases. Epilepsia, 63, 1115-1129.
Monzel M, Mitchell D, Macpherson F, Pearson J, Zeman A (2022). Proposal for a consistent definition of aphantasia and hyperphantasia: a response to Lambert and Sibley (2022) and Simner and Dance (2022). Cortex, 152, 74-76.  Author URL.
Zhao B, Della Sala S, Zeman A, Gherri E (2022). Spatial transformation in mental rotation tasks in aphantasia. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 29(6), 2096-2107. Abstract.
Keogh R, Pearson J, Zeman A (2021). Aphantasia: the science of visual imagery extremes. Handb Clin Neurol, 178, 277-296. Abstract.  Author URL.
Milton F, Fulford J, Dance C, Gaddum J, Heuerman-Williamson B, Jones K, Knight KF, Mackisack M, Winlove C, Zeman A, et al (2021). Behavioral and Neural Signatures of Visual Imagery Vividness Extremes: Aphantasia vs Hyperphantasia. Cerebral Cortex Communications, 2, 1-15.
Lomas M, Rickard V, Milton F, Savage S, Weir A, Zeman A (2021). Electroconvulsive Therapy related Autobiographical Amnesia: ‘Somatoform’ or ‘Organic’? - a review and case report. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry, 26, 107-121.
Patel D, Ibrahim H, Rankin J, Hilton D, Barria MA, Ritchie DL, Smith C, Zeman A (2021). Fatal insomnia: the elusive prion disease. BMJ Case Rep, 14(6). Abstract.  Author URL.
Baker J, Savage S, Milton F, Butler C, Kapur N, Hodges J, Zeman A (2021). The Syndrome of Transient Epileptic Amnesia: a combined series of 115 cases and literature review. Brain Communications, 3
Dance CJ, Jaquiery M, Eagleman DM, Porteous D, Zeman A, Simner J (2021). What is the relationship between Aphantasia, Synaesthesia and Autism?. Conscious Cogn, 89 Abstract.  Author URL.
MacKisack M, Zeman A, Winlove C, Onians J, Macpherson F, Aldworth S (2020). Extended Imagining: the case of the aphantasic artist. Abstract.
Romiszewski S, May FEK, Homan EJ, Norris B, Miller MA, Zeman A (2020). Medical student education in sleep and its disorders is still meagre 20 years on: a cross-sectional survey of UK undergraduate medical education. J Sleep Res, 29(6). Abstract.  Author URL.
Argyropoulos GPD, Moore L, Loane C, Roca-Fernandez A, Lage-Martinez C, Gurau O, Irani SR, Zeman A, Butler CR (2020). Pathologic tearfulness after limbic encephalitis. Neurology, 10.1212/WNL.0000000000008-10.1212/WNL.0000000000008.
Zeman AZJ, Milton F, Della Sala S, Dewar M, Frayling T, Gaddum J, Hattersley A, Heuerman-Williamson B, Jones K, Mackisack M, et al (2020). Phantasia - the psychological significance of lifelong visual imagery vividness extremes. Cortex, 130, 426-440.
Baker J, Libretto T, Henley W, Zeman A (2019). A Longitudinal Study of Epileptic Seizures in Alzheimer's Disease. Front Neurol, 10 Abstract.  Author URL.
Hoefeijzers S, Zeman A, Della Sala S, Dewar M (2019). Capturing real-life forgetting in transient epileptic amnesia via an incidental memory test. Cortex, 110, 47-57. Abstract.
Bowman P, Day J, Torrens L, Shepherd MH, Knight BA, Ford TJ, Flanagan SE, Chakera A, Hattersley AT, Zeman A, et al (2019). Cognitive, Neurological, and Behavioral Features in Adults with KCNJ11 Neonatal Diabetes. Diabetes Care, 42(2), 215-224. Abstract.  Author URL.
Helbig KL, Lauerer RJ, Bahr JC, Souza IA, Myers CT, Uysal B, Schwarz N, Gandini MA, Huang S, Keren B, et al (2019). De Novo Pathogenic Variants in CACNA1E Cause Developmental and Epileptic Encephalopathy with Contractures, Macrocephaly, and Dyskinesias. Am J Hum Genet, 104(3).  Author URL.
Atherton KE, Filippini N, Zeman AZJ, Nobre AC, Butler CR (2019). Encoding-related brain activity and accelerated forgetting in transient epileptic amnesia. Cortex, 110, 127-140. Abstract.  Author URL.
Berkovic SF, Oliver KL, Canafoglia L, Krieger P, Damiano JA, Hildebrand MS, Morbin M, Vears DF, Sofia V, Giuliano L, et al (2019). Kufs disease due to mutation of CLN6: clinical, pathological and molecular genetic features. Brain, 142(1), 59-69. Abstract.  Author URL.
Savage SA, Irani S, Leite MI, Zeman A (2019). NMDA receptor antibody encephalitis presenting as Transient Epileptic Amnesia. Journal of Neuroimmunology
Savage S, Hoefeijzers S, Milton FN, Streatfield C, Dewar M, Zeman A (2019). The evolution of accelerated long-term forgetting: Evidence from the TIME study. Cortex, 110, 16-36.
Baker J, Libretto T, Henley W, Zeman A (2019). The prevalence and clinical features of epileptic seizures in a memory clinic population. Seizure, 71, 83-92.
Weston PSJ, Nicholas JM, Henley SMD, Liang Y, Macpherson K, Donnachie E, Schott JM, Rossor MN, Crutch SJ, Butler CR, et al (2018). Accelerated long-term forgetting in presymptomatic autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease: a cross-sectional study. LANCET NEUROLOGY, 17(2), 123-132.  Author URL.
Helbig KL, Lauerer RJ, Bahr JC, Souza IA, Myers CT, Uysal B, Schwarz N, Gandini MA, Huang S, Keren B, et al (2018). De Novo Pathogenic Variants in CACNA1E Cause Developmental and Epileptic Encephalopathy with Contractures, Macrocephaly, and Dyskinesias. Am J Hum Genet, 103(5), 666-678. Abstract.  Author URL.
Romiszewski S, Croft D, Veale J, Matthews L, Ryland H, May F, Zeman A (2018). Neurological sleep medicine: a case note audit from a specialist clinic. Progress in Neurology and Psychiatry, 22(2), 9-17. Abstract.
Zeman A, MacKisack M, Onians J (2018). The Eye's mind – Visual imagination, neuroscience and the humanities. Cortex, 105, 1-3.
Fulford J, Milton F, Salas D, Smith A, Simler A, Winlove C, Zeman A (2018). The neural correlates of visual imagery vividness – an fMRI study and literature review. Cortex, 105, 26-40. Abstract.
Winlove CIP, Milton F, Ranson J, Fulford J, MacKisack M, Macpherson F, Zeman A (2018). The neural correlates of visual imagery: a co-ordinate-based meta-analysis. Cortex, 105, 4-25. Abstract.
Zeman AZJ, Baker J (2017). Accelerated Long-Term Forgetting in Epilepsy - and Beyond. Cognitive Neuroscience of Memory Consolidation, Studies in Neuroscience, Psychology and Behavioural Economics, 401-417.
Vossel KA, Tartaglia MC, Nygaard HB, Zeman AZ, Miller BL (2017). Epileptic activity in Alzheimer's disease: causes and clinical relevance. The Lancet Neurology, 16(4), 311-322. Abstract.
Day JO, Flanagan SE, Shepherd MH, Patrick AW, Abid N, Torrens L, Zeman AJ, Patel KA, Hattersley AT (2017). Hyperglycaemia‐related complications at the time of diagnosis can cause permanent neurological disability in children with neonatal diabetes. Diabetic Medicine, 34(7), 1000-1004. Abstract.
Zeman A (2017). Michael R. Trimble, the Intentional Brain (Baltimore, MD: John Hopkins University Press, 2016), pp. x, 308, $29.95, hardback, ISBN: 978-1-4214-1949-7. Med Hist, 61(2), 329-330.  Author URL.
Zeman AZJ, Byruck M, Tallis P, Vossel K, Tranel D (2017). NSY-D-17-00057R1 Touching the Void. Neuropsychologia
Savage SA, Butler CR, Milton F, Han Y, Zeman AZ (2017). On the nose: olfactory disturbances in transient epileptic amnesia. Epilepsy and Behavior, 66, 113-113.
Day JO, Zeman AJ (2016). Limbic encephalitis driven by a pleural mesothelioma: a paraneoplastic complication. Middle East Journal of Cancer, 7(4), 221-223. Abstract.
MacKisack M, Aldworth S, Macpherson F, Onians J, Winlove C, Zeman A (2016). On picturing a candle: the prehistory of imagery science. Frontiers in Psychology, 7(APR), 515:1-16. Abstract.
Zeman A, Zaiwalla Z (2016). Prescribing sodium oxybate for narcolepsy. BMJ, 353  Author URL.
Zeman A, Dewar M, Della Sala S (2016). Reflections on aphantasia. Cortex, 74, 336-337.  Author URL.
Atherton KE, Nobre AC, Lazar AS, Wulff K, Whittaker RG, Dhawan V, Lazar ZI, Zeman AZ, Butler CR (2016). Slow wave sleep and accelerated forgetting. Cortex, 84, 80-89. Abstract.
Zeman A, Hoefeijzers S, Milton F, Dewar M, Carr M, Streatfield C (2016). The GABAB receptor agonist, baclofen, contributes to three distinct varieties of amnesia in the human brain - a detailed case report. Cortex, 74, 9-19. Abstract.  Author URL.
Dewer B, Rogers P, Ricketts J, Mukonoweshuro W, Zeman A (2016). The radiological diagnosis of frontotemporal dementia in everyday practice: an audit of reports, review of diagnostic criteria, and proposal for service improvement. Clin Radiol, 71(1), 40-47. Abstract.  Author URL.
Savage SA, Butler CR, Hodges JR, Zeman AZ (2016). Transient Epileptic Amnesia over twenty years: Long-term follow-up of a case series with three detailed reports. Seizure, 43, 48-55.
Hoefeijzers S, Dewar M, Della Sala S, Butler C, Zeman A (2015). Accelerated long-term forgetting can become apparent within 3-8 hours of wakefulness in patients with transient epileptic amnesia. Neuropsychology, 29(1), 117-125. Abstract.  Author URL.
Dewar M, Hoefeijzers S, Zeman A, Butler C, Della Sala S (2015). Impaired picture recognition in transient epileptic amnesia. Epilepsy Behav, 42, 107-116. Abstract.  Author URL.
Zeman A, Dewar M, Della Sala S (2015). Lives without imagery - Congenital aphantasia. Cortex, 73, 378-380.  Author URL.
Zeman A (2014). Brain imaging - what it can (and cannot) tell us about consciousness. Neuropsychol Rehabil, 24(1), 144-146.  Author URL.
Bäumer D, East SZ, Tseu B, Zeman A, Hilton D, Talbot K, Ansorge O (2014). FTLD-ALS of TDP-43 type and SCA2 in a family with a full ataxin-2 polyglutamine expansion. Acta Neuropathol, 128(4), 597-604. Abstract.  Author URL.
Zeman A, Rickards H, White P (2014). Integrating alienists. LANCET PSYCHIATRY, 1(5), 333-333.  Author URL.
Warren-Gash C, Zeman A (2014). Is there anything distinctive about epileptic déjà vu?. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 85(2), 143-147. Abstract.
Zeman A (2014). Mirrors in the Brain. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY, 127(2), 264-268.  Author URL.
Zeman A (2014). Neurology is psychiatry--and vice versa. Pract Neurol, 14(3), 136-144. Abstract.  Author URL.
Wells CE, Moulin CJA, Ethridge P, Illman NA, Davies E, Zeman A (2014). Persistent psychogenic déjà vu: a case report. J Med Case Rep, 8 Abstract.  Author URL.
Atherton KE, Nobre AC, Zeman AZ, Butler CR (2014). Sleep-dependent memory consolidation and accelerated forgetting. Cortex, 54(1), 92-105. Abstract.
Baker S, Williams H, Sharp D, Gardner A, Harris A, Zeman A, Fulford J (2014). Sports-related concussion and diffusion tensor imaging findings in rugby players. BRAIN INJURY, 28(5-6), 686-686.  Author URL.
Hoefeijzers S, Dewar M, Della Sala S, Zeman A, Butler C (2013). Accelerated long-term forgetting in transient epileptic amnesia: an acquisition or consolidation deficit?. Neuropsychologia, 51(8), 1549-1555. Abstract.  Author URL.
Charland-Verville V, Bruno MA, Bahri MA, Demertzi A, Desseilles M, Chatelle C, Vanhaudenhuyse A, Hustinx R, Bernard C, Tshibanda L, et al (2013). Brain dead yet mind alive: a positron emission tomography case study of brain metabolism in cotard's syndrome. Cortex, 49(7), 1997-1999.
Zeman AZJ, Milton FN, Smith A, Rylance R (2013). By heart. An fMRI study of brain activation by poetry and prose. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 20(9-10), 132-158.
Zeman AZJ, Beschin N, Dewar M, Della Sala S (2013). Imagining the present: Amnesia may impair descriptions of the present as well as of the future and the past. Cortex, 49(3), 637-645. Abstract.
Butler C, van Erp W, Bhaduri A, Hammers A, Heckemann R, Zeman A (2013). Magnetic resonance volumetry reveals focal brain atrophy in transient epileptic amnesia. Epilepsy Behav, 28(3), 363-369. Abstract.  Author URL.
Zeman A, Butler C, Muhlert N, Milton F (2013). Novel forms of forgetting in temporal lobe epilepsy. Epilepsy and Behavior, 26(3), 335-342. Abstract.
Sabah M, Zeman A (2013). Oculo-Dento-Digital Dysplasia (ODDD). Advances in Clinical Neuroscience and Rehabilitation, 13, 16-17.
Brázdil M, Zeman A (2013). The boundaries of epilepsy: Where is the limit? a reply to Labate and Gambardella. Cortex, 49(4), 1163-1164.
Zeman A, Coebergh JA (2013). The nature of consciousness. Handb Clin Neurol, 118, 373-407.  Author URL.
Zeman A, Dewar B, Butler C (2013). Transient epileptic amnesia: the contribution of the british neurological surveillance unit. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry, 84(11). Abstract.  Author URL.
Milton F, Butler CR, Benattayallah A, Zeman A (2012). An fMRI study of autobiographical memory deficits in transient epileptic amnesia. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 83(10). Abstract.
White PD, Rickards H, Zeman AZJ (2012). Classifying mental and neurological conditions together: Authors' reply to letters. BMJ (Online), 345(7867).
Butler C, Kapur N, Zeman A, Weller R, Connelly A (2012). Epilepsy-related long-term amnesia: Anatomical perspectives. Neuropsychologia, 50(13), 2973-2980. Abstract.
Sabah M, Mulcahy J, Zeman A (2012). Herpes simplex encephalitis. Praxis, 101(22), 1437-1440.
Sabah M, Mulcahy J, Zeman A (2012). Herpes simplex encephalitis. BMJ, 344:e3166, 47-49.
White PD, Rickards H, Zeman AZ (2012). Mental and neurological illnesses should be classified together as conditions of the nervous system. British Medical Journal, 344:e3454, 26-28.
Muhlert N, Zeman A (2012). The enigma of long-term forgetting. Seizure, 21(2), 77-78.  Author URL.
Ryland H, Williams WH, Zeman A, Murray J, Turner M (2012). The impact of neurological indicators of severity of concussion on neurocognitive performance in a sports population. BRAIN INJURY, 26(4-5), 627-628.  Author URL.
Milton FN, Butler CR, Benattayallah A, Zeman, A.Z.J. (2012). The neural basis of autobiographical memory deficits in transient epileptic amnesia. Neuropsychologia, 50(14), 3528-3541.
Brázdil M, Mareček R, Urbánek T, Kašpárek T, Mikl M, Rektor I, Zeman A (2012). Unveiling the mystery of déjà vu: the structural anatomy of déjà vu. Cortex, 48(9), 1240-1243. Abstract.
Pal S, Zeidler M, Ironside JW, Zeman A (2011). 31st Advanced Clinical Neurology Course, Edinburgh 2009: progressive cognitive impairment, behavioural change and upper motor neuron signs in a 57-year-old woman. Pract Neurol, 11(2), 71-80.  Author URL.
Butler CR, Zeman A (2011). The causes and consequences of transient epileptic amnesia. Behav Neurol, 24(4), 299-305. Abstract.  Author URL.
Milton F, Muhlert N, Butler C, Zeman A (2011). The neural correlates of everyday recognition memory at a six month delay. Memory, 19, 733-744.
Milton F, Muhlert N, Butler CR, Benattayallah A, Zeman AZJ (2011). The neural correlates of everyday recognition memory. Brain and Cognition, 76(3), 369-381. Abstract.
Milton F, Butler CR, Zeman AZJ (2011). Transient epileptic amnesia: déjà vu heralding recovery of lost memories. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, & Psychiatry, 82, 1178-1179.
Muhlert N, Milton F, Butler CR, Kapur N, Zeman AZJ (2010). Accelerated forgetting of real life events in Transient Epileptic Amnesia. Neuropsychologia, 48, 3235-3244.
Zeman AZJ, Della Sala S, Torrens LA, Gountouna VE, McGonigle DJ, Logie RH (2010). Loss of imagery phenomenology with intact visuo-spatial task performance: a case of 'blind imagination'. NEUROPSYCHOLOGIA, 48(1), 145-155. Abstract.
Shankar R, Jalihal V, Walker M, Zeman A (2010). Pseudocataplexy and transient functional paralysis: a spectrum of psychogenic motor disorder. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci, 22(4), 445-450. Abstract.  Author URL.
Milton F, Muhlert N, Pindus D, Butler CR, Kapur N, Graham KS, Zeman AZJ (2010). Remote memory deficits in transient epileptic amnesia. Brain, 133, 1368-1379.
Smith A, Milton F, Rylance R, Zeman AZJ (2010). Rhyme and reason: the neural correlates of reading poetry and prose. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, & Psychiatry, 81, e9-e9.
Zeman A, Butler C (2010). Transient epileptic amnesia. Curr Opin Neurol, 23(6), 610-616. Abstract.  Author URL.
Laureys S, Celesia GG, Cohadon F, Lavrijsen J, León-Carrión J, Sannita WG, Sazbon L, Schmutzhard E, von Wild KR, Zeman A, et al (2010). Unresponsive wakefulness syndrome: a new name for the vegetative state or apallic syndrome. BMC Med, 8 Abstract.  Author URL.
Zeman AZJ (2009). Do you remember the TIME?. Transient Epileptic Amnesia: the TIME Project. Epilepsy Professional, 13, 10-14.
Demertzi A, Liew C, Ledoux D, Bruno M-A, Sharpe M, Laureys S, Zeman A (2009). Dualism persists in the science of mind. Ann N Y Acad Sci, 1157, 1-9. Abstract.  Author URL.
Zeman A (2009). The problem of unreportable awareness. Prog Brain Res, 177, 1-9. Abstract.  Author URL.
Butler CR, Bhaduri A, Acosta-Cabronero J, Nestor PJ, Kapur N, Graham KS, Hodges JR, Zeman AZ (2009). Transient epileptic amnesia: regional brain atrophy and its relationship to memory deficits. Brain, 132(Pt 2), 357-368. Abstract.  Author URL.
Zeman A (2009). When a patient with epilepsy complains about poor memory. Pract Neurol, 9(2), 85-89. Abstract.  Author URL.
Butler CR, Zeman A (2008). A case of transient epileptic amnesia with radiological localization. Nat Clin Pract Neurol, 4(9), 516-521. Abstract.  Author URL.
Zeman A (2008). Consciousness: concepts, neurobiology, terminology of impairments, theoretical models and philosophical background. Handb Clin Neurol, 90, 3-31.
Ambrose T, Butler C, Myles L, Zeman A (2008). Pitfalls in the diagnosis of hydrocephalus. Br J Hosp Med (Lond), 69(4), 192-195. Abstract.  Author URL.
Butler CR, Zeman AZ (2008). Recent insights into the impairment of memory in epilepsy: transient epileptic amnesia, accelerated long-term forgetting and remote memory impairment. BRAIN, 131, 2243-2263. Abstract.
Torrens L, Burns E, Stone J, Graham C, Wright H, Summers D, Sellar R, Porteous M, Warner J, Zeman A, et al (2008). Spinocerebellar ataxia type 8 in Scotland: frequency, neurological, neuropsychological and neuropsychiatric findings. Acta Neurol Scand, 117(1), 41-48. Abstract.  Author URL.
Butler C, Zeman A (2008). Transient epileptic amnesia: Old syndrome or new? Reply. ANNALS OF NEUROLOGY, 63(3), 409-409.  Author URL.
Kalra S, Chancellor A, Zeman A (2007). Recurring déjà vu associated with 5-hydroxytryptophan. Acta Neuropsychiatrica, 19(5), 311-313. Abstract.
Zeman A (2007). Sherrington's philosophical writings--a 'zest for life'. Brain, 130(Pt 8), 1984-1987. Abstract.  Author URL.
Butler CR, Graham KS, Hodges JR, Kapur N, Wardlaw JM, Zeman AZJ (2007). The syndrome of transient epileptic amnesia. ANNALS OF NEUROLOGY, 61(6), 587-598.  Author URL.
Zeman A, Carson A, Rivers C, Nath U (2006). A case of evolving post-ictal language disturbance secondary to a left temporal arteriovenous malformation: jargon aphasia or formal thought disorder?. Cogn Neuropsychiatry, 11(5), 465-479. Abstract.  Author URL.
Wright H, Wardlaw J, Young AW, Zeman A (2006). Prosopagnosia following nonconvulsive status epilepticus associated with a left fusiform gyrus malformation. Epilepsy Behav, 9(1), 197-203. Abstract.  Author URL.
Butler C, Zeman A (2006). Syndromes of transient amnesia. Advances in Clinical Neuroscience and Rehabilitation, 6, 13-14.
Zeman A (2006). What do we mean by "conscious" and "aware"?. Neuropsychol Rehabil, 16(4), 356-376. Abstract.  Author URL.
Manes F, Graham KS, Zeman A, de Luján Calcagno M, Hodges JR (2005). Autobiographical amnesia and accelerated forgetting in transient epileptic amnesia. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry, 76(10), 1387-1391. Abstract.  Author URL.
Zeidler M, Zeman A (2005). Can brain biopsy aid the diagnosis of dementia?. NATURE CLINICAL PRACTICE NEUROLOGY, 1(2), 82-83.  Author URL.
Zeman A, Daniels G, Tilley L, Dunn M, Toplis L, Bullock T, Poole J, Blackwood D (2005). McLeod syndrome: life-long neuropsychiatric disorder due to a novel mutation of the XK gene. Psychiatr Genet, 15(4), 291-293. Abstract.  Author URL.
Zeman A, Butler C (2005). Neurological syndromes which can be mistaken for psychiatric conditions. Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, 76(suppl_1), 31-38.
Zeman A (2005). Tales from the temporal lobes. N Engl J Med, 352(2), 119-121.  Author URL.
Zeman A, Reading P (2005). The science of sleep. Clin Med (Lond), 5(2), 97-101.  Author URL.
Zeman A (2004). Conference report - ASSC 8. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 11(9), 70-75.
Zeman A, Britton T, Douglas N, Hansen A, Hicks J, Howard R, Meredith A, Smith I, Stores G, Wilson S, et al (2004). Narcolepsy and excessive daytime sleepiness. BMJ, 329(7468), 724-728.  Author URL.
Zeman A, Shenton G (2004). Neuroacanthocytosis. Practical Neurology, 4, 298-301.
Zeman A (2004). Soul made flesh - the discovery of the brain - and how it changed the world. NEW YORK TIMES BOOK REVIEW, 16-16.  Author URL.
Zeman A, Burns E, Porteus M, Stone J (2004). Spinocerebellar ataxia type 8 in Scotland: genetic and clinical features in 7 unrelated cases and a review of the literature. Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, 75(3), 459-465.
Warren-Gash C, Zeman A (2003). Déjà vu. Practical Neurology, 3(2), 106-109.
Zeman A (2003). What is consciousness and what does it mean for the persistent vegetative state?. Advances in Clinical Neuroscience and Rehabilitation, 3, 12-14.
Al-Shahi R, Scolding NJ, Bell JE, Zeman AZ, Warlow CP (2002). A young man with a fatal encephalopathy. Practical Neurology, 2(1), 26-35.
Stone J, Zeman A, Sharpe M (2002). Functional weakness and sensory disturbance. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry, 73(3), 241-245. Abstract.  Author URL.
Zeman A (2002). The persistent vegetative state: conscious of nothing?. Practical Neurology, 2, 214-217.
Zeman A (2001). Consciousness. BRAIN, 124, 1263-1289.  Author URL.
Zeman A (2001). Evidence based guidelines for the management of narcolepsy. JOURNAL OF NEUROLOGY NEUROSURGERY AND PSYCHIATRY, 71(3), 424-424.  Author URL.
Manes, F. Hodges, J.R. Graham, K.S. (2001). Focal autobiographical amnesia in association with transient amnesia. Brain, 124(3), 499-509.
Stone J, Smith L, Watt K, Barron L, Zeman A (2001). Incoordinated thought and emotion in spinocerebellar ataxia type 8. J Neurol, 248(3), 229-232.  Author URL.
Zeman A, Douglas N, Aylward R (2001). Narcolepsy mistaken for epilepsy. British Medical Journal, 322(7280), 216-217.
Zeman A, Stone J, Porteous M, Barron L, Warner J (2001). Study of the neurological, cognitive, and behavioural features of spinocerebellar ataxia type 8. JOURNAL OF NEUROLOGY NEUROSURGERY AND PSYCHIATRY, 71(3), 420-420.  Author URL.
Zeidler M, Hughes T, Zeman A (2000). Confused by arteritis. Lancet, 355(9201).  Author URL.
Graham NL, Zeman A, Young AW, Patterson K, Hodges JR (1999). Dyspraxia in a patient with corticobasal degeneration: the role of visual and tactile inputs to action. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry, 67(3), 334-344. Abstract.  Author URL.
Zeman AZ (1999). Episodic memory in transient global amnesia. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry, 66(2).  Author URL.
Halligan PW, Zeman A, Berger A (1999). Phantoms in the brain. British Medical Journal, 319(7210), 587-588.
Zeman A (1998). The consciousness of sight. BMJ, 317(7174), 1696-1697.  Author URL.
Zeman AZ, Boniface SJ, Hodges JR (1998). Transient epileptic amnesia: a description of the clinical and neuropsychological features in 10 cases and a review of the literature. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry, 64(4), 435-443. Abstract.  Author URL.
Zeman AZ, Grayling AC, Cowey A (1997). Contemporary theories of consciousness. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry, 62(6), 549-552.  Author URL.
Zeman A (1997). Persistent vegetative state. Lancet, 350(9080), 795-799.  Author URL.
Zeman AZ, Hodges JR (1997). Transient global amnesia. Br J Hosp Med, 58(6), 257-260. Abstract.  Author URL.
Zeman A, McLean B, Keir G, Luxton R, Sharief M, Thompson E (1993). The significance of serum oligoclonal bands in neurological diseases. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry, 56(1), 32-35. Abstract.  Author URL.


Zeman A (2020). Aphantasia. Adam Zeman. Chapter in the Cambridge Handbook of the Imagination, ed Anna Abraham, Cambridge University Press, 2020. In Abraham A (Ed) The Cambridge Handbook of the Imagination, ed Anna Abraham, Cambridge University Press, 2020, Cambridge University Press, 692-710.
Zeman A, Baker J, Savage S (2019). Cognitive Assessment. In Butler R, Katona C (Eds.) Seminars in Old Age Psychiatry, ed. Rob Butler and Cornelius Katona, Cambridge University Press, December 20, 2019, 27-40.
Davis P, Corcoran R, Rylance R, Zeman A, Kidd D, de Bezenac C (2019). Reading: Brain, mind and body. In  (Ed) Reading and Mental Health, 293-320.
Zeman AZJ (2017). Foreword to Aphantasia – experiences, perceptions and insights. Alan Kendle, Dark River, Bennion Kearny 2017. In  (Ed) Aphantasia – experiences, perceptions and insights. Alan Kendle, Dark River, Bennion Kearny 2017.
Zeman A (2017). The syndrome of transient epileptic amnesia: Diagnose "psychogenic" causation carefully: Remember that "standard tests" can sometimes miss the point, and discuss difficult cases with colleagues when in doubt. In  (Ed) Neuropsychiatry Case Studies, 121-125.
Butler C, Zeman A (2015). Syndromes of Transient Amnesia. In Laureys S, Tononi G (Eds.) The Neurology of Consciousness.
Zeman A (2015). The origins of subjectivity. In Jeeves M (Ed) In the Emergence of Personhood. Eerdmans.
Hoefeijzers S, Zeman A (2015). Transient Epileptic Amnesia. In  (Ed) International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences: Second Edition, 554-561. Abstract.
Hoefeijzers S, Zeman A (2015). Transient Epileptic Amnesia. In: James D Wright (editor-in-chief), International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences. In  (Ed) , 554-561.
Butler C, Zeman A (2014). Transient Epileptic Amnesia. In Aminoff MJ, Daroff RB (Eds.) Encyclopedia of the Neurological Sciences, Oxford: Academic Press, 485-488.
Butler C, Zeman A (2013). Transient global amnesia. In Reuber M, Schacter S (Eds.) In the Borderlands of Epilepsy, Oxford University Press.
Carson A, Stone J, Zeman A (2012). Neuropsychiatry for liaison psychiatrists. In Guthrie E, Rao S, Temple M (Eds.) Seminars in Liaison Psychiatry, RCPsych publications.
Butler C, Muhlert N, Zeman A (2010). Accelerated long-term forgetting. In  (Ed) Forgetting, 211-234.
Zeman A, Torrens L (2010). Cognitive Assessment. In Puri B, Treasaden I (Eds.) Psychiatry: an Evidence-based Text, Hodder Arnold.
Zeman AZJ (2010). Mind and Brain: building bridges between neurology, psychiatry and psychology. In  (Ed) Oxford Textbook of Medicine, Oxford University Press.
Zeman AZJ (2009). Epilepsy, Deja vu, Automatisms. In Wilken P, Bayne T, Cleeremans A (Eds.) The Oxford Companion to Consciousness, Oxford University Press.
Butler C, Zeman A (2009). Syndromes of transient amnesia. In  (Ed) The Neurology of Consciousness, 339-351.
Zeman AZJ (2008). Does consciousness spring from the brain?. Dilemmas of awareness in practice and in theory. In Davies M, Weiskrantz L (Eds.) The Frontiers of Consciousness. Chichele Lectures, Oxford University Press.
Zeman AZJ (2008). Foreword. In Olins Alpert B (Ed) The Creative Ice Age Brain: cave art in the light of neuroscience, M.A.T. Foundation.
Zeman AZJ (2007). Conscience and Consciousness. In Walker G (Ed) The Science of Morality, Royal College of Physicians.
Zeman AZJ (2007). Diagnosis of brain death and persistent vegetative state. In  (Ed) Reviews in Neurology, Continuing Medical Education Program of the Indian Academy of Neurology.
Carson A, Zeman A, Myles L, Sharpe M (2007). Neurological Disorders. In Guthrie E, Lloyd G (Eds.) The Handbook of Liaison Psychiatry, University Press, Cambridge.
Carson AJ, Zeman A, Myles L, Sharpe M (2007). Neurology and Neurosurgery. In Levenson J (Ed) Essentials of Psychosomatic Medicine, American Psychiatric Publishing Incorporated, Washington DC.
Zeman AZJ (2006). Consciousness. In Hallett M (Ed) Psychogenic Movement Disorders, Lipincott, Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia.
Carson A, Zeman A, Myles L, Sharpe M (2005). Neurology and Nuerosurgery. In Levenson J (Ed) The American Psychiatric Textbook of Psychosomatic Medicine, Washington: American Psychiatric Press Incorporated.
Zeman A (2005). What in the world is consciousness?. In Laureys S (Ed) The Boundaries of Consciousness, Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Carson A, Zeman A, Brown TM, Sharpe M (2004). Organic Psychiatry. In Jonstone EC (Ed) Companion to Psychiatric Studies, Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone.
Zeman A (2004). Theories of visual awareness. In  (Ed) Progress in Brain Research, Elsevier, 321-329.
Zeman A (2004). Theories of visual awareness. In  (Ed) , 321-329. Abstract.  Author URL.
Zeman AZJ (2002). Consciousness. In Nadel L (Ed) Macmillan Encyclopaedia of Cognitive Science, Nature Publishing.
Stone J, Zeman A (2001). Conversion hysteria: the view from neurology. In Halligan P, Bass C, Marshall J (Eds.) Conversion Hysteria, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Zeman AZJ, Emanuel L (2000). Ethical Dilemmas in Neurology. In  (Ed) Major Problems in Neurology, W B Saunders, London.
Zeman A, Hodges J (2000). Transient global amnesia and transient eplieptic amnesia. In Berrios G, Hodges J (Eds.) Memory Disorders in Psychiatric Practice, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


Savage S, Baker J, Butler C, Hodges J, Zeman A (2017). Long-term prognosis of transient epileptic amnesia: Evidence from the time project.  Author URL.
Day JO, Torrens L, Bowman P, Shepherd M, Chakera A, Hattersley AT, Zeman AJ (2016). <i>KCNJ11</i> mutations can result in severe cognitive and behavioural problems as well as neonatal diabetes: evaluation of seven adult patients.  Author URL.
Day J, Torrens L, Bowman P, Shepherd M, Chakera A, Hattersley A, Zeman A (2016). KCNJ11 MUTATIONS CAUSE SEVERE NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL DEFICITS.  Author URL.
Weston P, Liang Y, Henley S, Nicholas J, Ryan N, Schott J, Rossor M, Butler C, Zeman A, Fox N, et al (2016). LONG-TERM FORGETTING IN PRECLINICAL FAMILIAL ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE.  Author URL.
Dharia S, Zeman A, Devon R (2015). SLEEP-DEPRIVATION AMNESIA.  Author URL.
Atherton K, Lazar A, Wulff K, Nobre K, Zeman A, Butler C (2015). Slow wave sleep is detrimental for memory consolidation in transient epileptic amnesia.  Author URL.
Fred A, De Marsico M, Tabbone A (2014). Foreword.
Butler CR, van Erp W, Bhaduri A, Hammers A, Heckemann R, Zeman AZ (2012). Magnetic Resonance Volumetry Reveals Focal Brain Atrophy in Transient Epileptic Amnesia.  Author URL.
Jung HH, Geser F, Haybaeck J, Bader B, Danek A, Fuhr P, Neumann M, Reichard R, Udd B, Zeman A, et al (2012). Neuropathology of McLeod neuroacanthocytosis syndrome.  Author URL.
Zeman A, Butler CR (2012). The Syndrome of Transient Epileptic Amnesia (TEA).  Author URL.
Brazdil M, Marecek R, Urbanek T, Kasparek T, Mikl M, Rektor I, Zeman A (2012). UNVEILING THE MYSTERY OF DEJA VU.  Author URL.
Benattayallah A, Milton F, Muhlert N, Butler CR, Zeman AZJ (2010). The neural correlates of everyday recognition memory. 18th Proceedings of the International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. 1st May 2020 - 7th May 2010.
Shankar R, Jalihal V, Zeman A (2008). Pseudo-cataplexy.  Author URL.
Zeman A, McGonigle D, Gountouna E, Torrens L, Della Sala S, Logie R (2007). "Blind imagination'': Brain activation after loss of the mind's eye.  Author URL.
Stone J, Zeman A, Simonotto E, Meyer M, Azuma R, Flett S, Sharpe M (2007). FMRI in patients with motor conversion symptoms and controls with simulated weakness. Abstract.  Author URL.
Zeman A, Torrens L, Sala SD, Logie R (2005). A case of blind imagination?.  Author URL.
Butler CR, Zeman AZJ (2005). Time - a study of epileptic amnesia.  Author URL.
Zeman A (2004). The concept of consciousness.  Author URL.
Warren-Gash C, Zeman A (2003). A study of deja vu in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy, students, and neurology outpatients.  Author URL.
Louis-Auguste J, Zeman A (2003). A study of impaired awareness due to stroke.  Author URL.


. (2003). The Vegetative State. Guidance on diagnosis and management. Report of a working party of the Royal College of Physicians, RCP.
Zeman AZJ (2002). Guidelines for the Management of Narcolepsy in Children and Adults. Report of an interdisciplinary working party. Taylor Patten Communications.

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External Engagement and Impact

Committee/panel activities

Member of Medical Research Council Neuroscience and Mental Health Board

Associate Fellow of the ARC Centre of Excellence in Cognition and its Disorders, Sydney 

Affiliate faculty member of the Centre for the Study of Perceptual Experience at Glasgow University

Director of British Neuropsychiatry Association

Advisory Board Epilepsy, Brain and Mind

Editorial responsibilities

Editorial Board Epilepsy and Behaviour

Invited lectures

Keynote speaker Australian Research Council (ARC) Centre of Excellence in Cognition and its Disorders, November 2016

Visiting Professor of Neurology, New Zealand Neurological Association, November 2015

Sidney Watson Smith Memorial Lecture, Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh 4.10.13

J E Wallace Wallin Memorial lecture, Augustana College, Rock Island, USA 11.10.12.

‘Leaders in the Field Presentation’, American Neurological Association meeting, Boston, 9.10.2012.

Department of Epileptology, Bonn, 15.12.11.

Killam Lecture, Montreal Neurological Institute, Montreal, 8.3.11

Media Coverage

Widespread media coverage of the description of ‘aphantasia’ (New York Times, Le Monde, New Scientist, BBC etc.) leading to direct contact from around 10,000 participants. 

Extensive recent coverage of papers on Cotard’s Syndrome, and brain activation by poetry and prose.

Articles on TIME project work in The TimesNew Scientist

Interviews on All in the Mind.

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  • PhD supervision
  • Supervision of neurologists in training
  • Supervision of intercalating Psychology students and student interns
  • Medical student teaching in clinic and seminars
  • Contributions to DclinPsy and Psychology MSc courses
  • Organiser: British Neuropsychiatry Association Training Weekend in Neuropsychiatry
  • External teaching and lecturing 

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