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Professor Joanne Smith

Professor Joanne Smith

Head of Psychology, Professor

 Washington Singer 102


Washington Singer Laboratories, University of Exeter, Perry Road, Prince of Wales Road, Exeter, EX4 4QG, UK


Joanne Smith is the Head of Psychology and a Professor in the School of Psychology


PhD (University of Queensland)


Joanne completed her undergraduate and postgraduate work at the University of Queensland. Her PhD examined when and why group members will conform to group norms and was supervised by Professors Debbie Terry and Mike Hogg. After graduation, Joanne worked at the University of Queensland as a postdoctoral research fellow, first on a funded project looking at the effects of subjective uncertainty (with Professors Hogg, Terry, and Robin Martin), then as a research fellow working for Professor Terry, and finally as an independent researcher.

Joanne joined the University of Exeter in October 2007 as a Lecturer, was promoted to Senior Lecturer in 2009, Associate Professor in 2015, and Professor in 2022. She served as Director of Education from 2012-2014 and Director of Research from 2017-2021. She has been Head of Department since September 2021.

Research group links

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Research interests

In the broadest sense, my research focuses on the ways in which social identity and group membership influences the way that we think, feel, and act, in relation to ourselves and in relation to other people.

My research interests can be divided into the following themes:

1. The impact of social identity factors and norms on the attitude-behaviour relationship. This research attempts to understand why people do not always ""practice what they preach"" and focuses on the role of norms in this process. In particular, my research focuses on the distinction between descriptive norms (what people do) and injunctive norms (what people approve of) and how these norms interact to influence behaviour. I have studied this topic in relation to political behaviour, environmental behaviour, health behaviour.

2. Using norms to improve behaviour change campaigns. Following on from my work on norms, I am also involved in research that looks at evaluating current behaviour change campaigns (mostly in the health domain) and investigates whether existing campaigns can be made more effective by the addition of either descriptive or injunctive norms.

My work also has an interdisciplinary flavour, and I have conducted research looking at the social and behavioural science aspects of water conservation and how to engage consumers with smart meters. With colleagues in the Medical School, we are currently undertaking an evaluation of a pilot intervention designed to address aggression in the night-time economy.

Research grants

  • 2022 Leverhulme Trust
    SIMBA: A social identity model of behavioural associations
  • 2020 NERC
    Reducing the impacts of plastic waste in the Eastern Pacific Ocean
  • 2019 EPSRC
    EXeMPlaR: Exeter Multidisciplinary Plastics Research Hub
  • 2015 Drinkaware
    Mixed methods assessment of a new intervention for encouraging responsible alcohol behaviour in the night time economy: the "Club Hosts" intervention
  • 2012 EU STREP/NEST
    Improved water efficiency through ICT technologies for integrated supply-demand side management (iWIDGET). For further details see:
  • 2009 Australian Research Council
    Draining the will for peace or war: Understanding how social influence and self-regulation processes interact in conflict.
  • 2008 The British Academy
    Group power and accountability
  • 2007 Australian Research Council
    Newcomer socialisation: The role of organisational identification in the prediction of employee turnover.
  • 2007 Australian Research Council
    The many faces of threat: An investigation of animal, interpersonal and intergroup threat
  • 2007 Australian Research Council
    Through the eyes of Chinese: Attitudes of Australia and their influence on Sino-Australian business exchange
  • 2007 Australian Research Council
    What makes unwritten rules work: A framework for understanding normative influence

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Smith JR, Haslam SA (2012). Social psychology: Revisiting the classic studies., Sage.

Journal articles

Hughes EA, Ellis S, Smith JR (2024). Connecting groups and behaviours: a network analysis of identity-infused behaviours. Br J Soc Psychol, 63(1), 205-233. Abstract.  Author URL.
Biber M, Louis WR, Smith J (2024). Predicting online privacy protection for Facebook users with an extended theory of planned behavior. The Journal of Social Psychology
Barth M, Masson T, Fritsche I, Fielding K, Smith JR (2021). Collective responses to global challenges: the social psychology of pro-environmental action. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 74 Abstract.
Neville FG, Templeton A, Smith JR, Louis WR (2021). Social norms, social identities and the COVID-19 pandemic: Theory and recommendations. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 15(5). Abstract.
Tarrant M, Smith J, Ball S, Winlove C, Gul S, Charles N (2019). Alcohol consumption among university students in the night-time economy in the UK: a three-wave longitudinal study. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 204 Abstract.
Boulton CA, Hughes E, Kent C, Smith JR, Williams HTP (2019). Student engagement and wellbeing over time at a higher education institution. PLoS One, 14(11). Abstract.  Author URL.
Larrabee Sønderlund A, Hughes E, Smith J (2019). The efficacy of learning analytics interventions in higher education: a systematic review. British Journal of Educational Technology, 50(5), 2594-2618. Abstract.
Imhoff R, Smith J, van Zomeren M (2018). Editorial: Opening up to openness. EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY, 48(1), 1-3.  Author URL.
Smith JR, Louis WR, Abraham C (2018). When and how does normative feedback reduce intentions to drink irresponsibly? an experimental investigation. Addiction Research and Theory, 26(4), 256-266. Abstract.
Plows SE, Smith FD, Smith JR, Chapman CM, La Macchia ST, Louis WR (2017). Healthy eating: a beneficial role for perceived norm conflict?. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 47(6), 295-304. Abstract.
Onu D, Kessler T, Smith JR (2016). Admiration: a Conceptual Review. Emotion Review Abstract.
Sønderlund AL, Smith JR, Hutton CJ, Kapelan Z, Savic D (2016). Effectiveness of smart meter-based consumption feedback in curbing household water use: Knowns and unknowns. Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management, 142(12). Abstract.
Onu D, Kessler T, Andonovska-Trajkovska D, Fritsche I, Midson GR, Smith JR (2016). Inspired by the outgroup: a social identity analysis of intergroup admiration. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 19(6), 713-731. Abstract.
Amiot CE, de la Sablonniere R, Smith LGE, Smith JR (2015). Capturing changes in social identities over time and how they become part of the self-concept. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 9(4), 171-187. Abstract.
Onu D, Smith JR, Kessler T (2015). Intergroup emulation: an improvement strategy for lower-status groups. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 18, 210-224. Abstract.
Smith LGE, Amiot CE, Smith JR, Callan VJ, Terry DJ (2014). A social validation and coping model of identity development: a longitudinal test. Journal of Management, 39, 1952-1978.
Staunton M, Louis WR, Smith JR, Terry DJ, Mcdonald RI (2014). How negative descriptive norms for healthy eating undermine the effects of positive injunctive norms. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 44(4), 319-330. Abstract.
Saeri AK, Ogilvie C, La Macchia ST, Smith JR, Louis WR (2014). Predicting facebook users online privacy protection: Risk, trust, norm focus theory, and the theory of planned behavior. Journal of Social Psychology, 154(4), 352-369. Abstract.
Lipp OV, Craig BM, Frost MJ, Terry DJ, Smith JR (2014). Searching for emotion or race: Task-irrelevant facial cues have asymmetrical effects. Cognition and Emotion, 28(6), 1100-1109. Abstract.
Bodimeade H, Anderson E, La Macchia S, Smith JR, Terry DJ, Louis WR (2014). Testing the direct, indirect, and interactive roles of referent group injunctive and descriptive norms for sun protection in relation to the theory of planned behavior. JOURNAL OF APPLIED SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY, 44(11), 739-750.  Author URL.
Molenberghs P, Bosworth R, Nott Z, Louis WR, Smith JR, Amiot CE, Vohs KD, Decety J (2014). The Influence of Group Membership and Individual Differences in Psychopathy and Perspective Taking on Neural Responses When Punishing and Rewarding Others. HUMAN BRAIN MAPPING, 35(10), 4989-4999.  Author URL.
Artis L, Smith JR (2013). Emergency department staff attitudes toward people who self-harm: exploring the influences of norms and identity. Adv Emerg Nurs J, 35(3), 259-269. Abstract.  Author URL.
Liu S, Liesch P, Smith JR, Ren Y, Gallois C (2012). Communicating through networks: Chinese business people’s views on engaging in business with foreign firms. China Media Research, 8, 86-94.
Smith JR, Louis WR, Terry DJ, Greenaway K, Clarke M, Cheng X (2012). Congruent or conflicted: the impact of injunctive and descriptive norms on environmental intentions. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 32, 353-363.
Smith LGE, Amiot CE, Callan VJ, Terry DJ, Smith JR (2012). Getting new staff to stay: the mediating role of organizational identification. British Journal of Management, 23(1), 45-64. Abstract.
Reicher SD, Haslam SA, Smith JR (2012). Working towards the experimenter: Reconceptualizing obedience within the Milgram paradigm as identification-based followership. Perspectives in Psychological Science, 7, 315-324.
Lipp OV, Mallan KM, Martin FH, Terry DJ, Smith JR (2011). Electro-cortical implicit race bias: it is fast and does not vary with participants’ race or sex. Social Cognitive Affective Neuroscience, 6, 591-601.
Smith JR, Louis WR, Schultz PW (2011). Introductory: Social influence in action. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 14(5), 599-604.
Liu S, Smith JR, Liesch P, Gallois C, Ren Y (2011). Through the lenses of culture: Chinese consumers’ intentions to purchase imported products. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 42, 1237-1250.
Loh J, Smith JR, Restubog SLD (2010). The Role of Culture, Workgroup Membership, and Organizational Status on Cooperation and Trust an Experimental Investigation. J APPL SOC PSYCHOL, 40(12), 2947-2968. Abstract.
Smith JR, Liu S, Liesch P, Gallois C, Yi R, Daly S (2010). The role of behavioral, normative, and control beliefs in the consumption of Australian products and services by Chinese consumers. Australasian Marketing Journal, 18, 206-213.
Smith JR, Louis WR (2009). Group norms in the attitude-behaviour relationship. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 3, 19-35. Abstract.
Lipp OV, Terry DJ, Smith JR, Tellegen CL, Kuebbeler J, Newey M (2009). Searching for differences in race – is there evidence for preferential detection of other-race faces?. Emotion, 9(3), 350-360. Abstract.
White KM, Smith JR, Terry DJ, Greenslade JH, McKimmie BM (2009). Social influence in the theory of planned behaviour: the role of descriptive, injunctive, and ingroup norms. British Journal of Social Psychology, 48, 135-158. Abstract.
Smith JR, Louis WR (2008). Do as we say and as we do: the interplay of descriptive and injunctive group norms in the attitude-behaviour relationship. British Journal of Social Psychology, 47, 647-666. Abstract.
Hornsey MJ, Robson E, Smith J, Esposo S, Sutton RM (2008). Sugaring the pill: Assessing rhetorical strategies designed to minimize defensive reactions to group criticism. HUM COMMUN RES, 34(1), 70-U119. Abstract.
Smith JR, Terry DJ, Manstead ASR, Louis WR, Kotterman D, Wolfs J (2008). The attitude-behavior relationship in consumer conduct: the role of norms, past behavior, and self-identity. Journal of Social Psychology, 148, 311-333. Abstract.
Hogg MA, Smith, J.R. (2007). Attitudes in social context: a social identity perspective. European Review of Social Psychology, 19, 89-131. Abstract.
Smith JR, McSweeney, A. (2007). Charitable giving: the effectiveness of a revised Theory of Planned Behaviour model in predicting donating intentions and donating behaviour. Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology, 17, 363-386. Abstract.
Hornsey MJ, Smith, J.R. Begg, D. (2007). Effects of norms among those with moral conviction: Counter-conformity emerges on intentions but not behaviors. Social Influence, 2, 244-268. Abstract.
Amiot CE, de la Sablonnière R, Terry DJ, Smith JR (2007). Integration of social identities into the self: Towards a cognitive-developmental model. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 11(4), 364-388. Abstract.
Smith JR, Terry DJ, Manstead ASR, Louis WR, Kotterman D, Wolfs J (2007). Interaction effects in the theory of planned behavior: the interplay of self-identity and past behavior. J APPL SOC PSYCHOL, 37(11), 2726-2750. Abstract.
Martin R, Martin PY, Smith JR, Hewstone M (2007). Majority versus minority influence and prediction of behavioral intentions and behavior. J EXP SOC PSYCHOL, 43(5), 763-771. Abstract.
Louis WR, Davies S, Smith JR, Terry DJ (2007). Pizza and pop and the student identity: the role of referent group norms in healthy and unhealthy eating. Journal of Social Psychology, 147, 57-74. Abstract.
Smith JR, Terry DJ, Hogg MA (2007). Social identity and the attitude-behaviour relationship: Effects of anonymity and accountability. European Journal of Social Psychology, 37(2), 239-257. Abstract.
Hornsey MJ, Frederiks, E. Smith, J.R. Ford, L. (2007). Strategic defensiveness: Public and private responses to group criticism. British Journal of Social Psychology, 46, 697-716. Abstract.
Smith JR, Hogg, M.A. Martin, R. Terry, D.J. (2007). Uncertainty and the influence of group norms in the attitude-behaviour relationship. British Journal of Social Psychology, 46, 769-792.
Terry DJ, Pelly RN, Lalonde RN, Smith JR (2006). Predictors of cultural adjustment: Intergroup status relations and boundary permeability. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 9(2), 249-264. Abstract.
Smith JR, Terry DJ, Hogg MA (2006). Who will see me? the impact of type of audience on willingness to display group-mediated attitude-intention consistency. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 36, 1173-1197. Abstract.
Hornsey MJ, Blackwood L, Louis W, Fielding K, Mavor K, Morton T, O'Brien A, Paasonen KE, Smith J, White K, et al (2006). Why do people engage in collective action? Revisiting the role of perceived effectiveness. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 36(7), 1701-1722. Abstract.
Reid SA, Gunter HN, Smith JR (2005). Aboriginal self-determination in Australia - the effects of minority-majority frames and target universalism on majority collective guilt and compensation attitudes. HUM COMMUN RES, 31(2), 189-211. Abstract.
Smith JR, Terry DJ, Crosier T, Duck JM (2005). The importance of the relevance of the issue to the group in attitude-intention consistency. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 27, 163-170. Abstract.
Smith JR, Terry DJ (2003). Attitude-behaviour consistency: the role of group norms, attitude accessibility and mode of behavioural decision-making. European Journal of Social Psychology, 33(5), 591-608. Abstract.


Tarrant M, Smith J, Louis W (2017). University students’ social identity and health behaviour. In Mavor K, Platow M, Bizumic B (Eds.) Self, Social Identity and Education, London: Routledge.
Greenaway KH, Louis WR, Parker SL, Kalokerinos EK, Smith JR, Terry DJ (2015). Measures of Coping for Psychological Well-Being. In  (Ed) Measures of Personality and Social Psychological Constructs, 322-351. Abstract.
Greenaway KH, Louis WR, Parker S, Kalokerinos EK, Smith JR, Terry DJ (2014). Successful coping for psychological well-being. In Boyle G, Saklofske DH, Matthews G (Eds.) Measures of Personality and Social Psychological Constructs, Oxford: Elsevier, 322-351.
Smith JR, Terry DJ (2013). Norms theory. In Kessler EH (Ed) Encyclopedia of Management Theory, London: Sage, 508-511.
Haslam SA, Smith JR (2012). An introduction to classic studies in social psychology. In Smith JR, Haslam SA (Eds.) Social psychology: Revisiting the classic studies, Sage, 1-10.
Smith JR, Terry DJ (2012). Attitudes and behaviour: Revisiting LaPiere's hospitality study. In Smith JR, Haslam SA (Eds.) Social psychology: Revisiting the classic studies, Sage, 27-41.
Smith, J.R. (2010). Informational influence. In Levine J, Hogg MA (Eds.) Encyclopedia of Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, London: Sage, 442-445.
Smith, J.R. (2010). Minimal group effect. In Levine J, Hogg MA (Eds.) Encyclopedia of Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, London: Sage, 555-557.
Smith, J.R. (2010). Need for closure. In Levine J, Hogg MA (Eds.) Encyclopedia of Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, London: Sage, 597-599.
Smith, J.R. (2010). Referent informational influence. In Levine J, Hogg MA (Eds.) Encyclopedia of Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, London: Sage, 687-689.
Terry DJ, Smith, J.R. (2008). Self-identity. In Jr WAD (Ed) International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, MacMillan, 417-420.
Smith JR, Hogg, M.A. (2008). Social identity and attitudes. In Crano W, Prislin R (Eds.) Attitudes and attitude change, Psychology Press, 337-360.


Burton K, Smith J (2020). Slowing the Loop: the role of grief and hope in building new economic spaces. Creative Circular Economy Approaches to Eliminate Plastic Waste. 8th Jun - 9th Sep 2020. Abstract.
Ribeiro R, Loureiro D, Barateiro J, Smith JR, Rebelo M, Kossieris P, Gerakopoulou P, Makropoulos C, Vieira P, Mansfield L, et al (2015). Framework for technical evaluation of decision support systems based on water smart metering: the iWIDGET case. Abstract.
Rebelo M, Smith JR, Menezes M (2014). Prioritizing use cases for water smart technology development: Similarities and differences from Portugal and UK case studies. Abstract.
Rebelo M, Smith JR, Menezes M (2014). Prioritizing use cases for water smart technology development: Similarities and differences from Portugal and UK case studies. Abstract.
Sønderlund AL, Smith JR, Hutton C, Kapelan Z (2014). Using smart meters for household water consumption feedback: Knowns and unknowns. Abstract.
Lipp OV, Martin FH, Terry DJ, Smith JR, Mallan KM (2008). Electro-cortical implicit race bias: it is fast and independent of participants' race or sex.  Author URL.
Mallan KM, Lipp OV, Smith JR, Terry DJ, Hess U (2008). Sex and race modulate early attentional and late emotional processing of happy and angry faces: Evidence from an ERP study. 48th Annual Meeting of the Society-for-Psychophysiological-Research.

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External Engagement and Impact

Administrative responsibilities


Honorary Research Fellow, School of Psychology, University of Queensland

Editor-in-Chief, European Journal of Social Psychology (2018-2020)

Series editor, "Psychology: Revisiting the classic studies" (for Sage)

Consulting editor, Group Processes and Intergroup Relations

External examiner, Brunel University, 2013-2017

External examiner, University of Kent, 2017-

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Past modules:

  • PSY1126 Classic Studies in Psychology
  • PSY2210 Social Practical 1
  • PSY2213 Social Practical 2
  • PSY2218 Social Practical 3
  • PSY3403 Contemporary Issues in Psychology
  • PSY3424 Applied Social Psychology: Health, Environment, and Society
  • PSYM204 Advances in Social and Organisational Psychology

Research supervision:

  • PSY3401 Research Project
  • PSYM210 Research Apprenticeship

I am a Senior Fellow of Higher Education Academy.



Information not currently available

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Supervision / Group

Postdoctoral researchers

  • Kerry Burton
  • Emily Hughes

Postgraduate researchers


  • Laura Artis
  • Chris Duke
  • Emily Hughes
  • Diana Onu

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