Professor Adam Rutland
Professor of Psychology
Washington Singer 109
Washington Singer Laboratories, University of Exeter, Perry Road, Prince of Wales Road, Exeter, EX4 4QG, UK
Office hours: Monday 11-12 noon Wednesday 1-2pm Appointments available upon request - please email me
Monday 11-12 noon
Appointments available upon request - please email me
Adam trained as a social developmental psychologist, and conducts research that cuts across developmental, social, cognitive and educational psychology.
He has contributed widely to various books and journals (including Psychological Science, Child Development, Developmental Psychology, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, European Journal of Social Psychology, PLOS One and Perspectives on Psychological Science) and is the co-author (with Melanie Killen) of Children and Social Exclusion: Morality, Prejudice, and Group Identity (Wiley-Blackwell, 2011). He is also co-editor of the Wiley-Blackwell Handbook of Group Processes in Children and Adolescents (2017, with Drew Nesdale and Christia Spears Brown) and the Sage Library in Developmental Psychology five volume Reader on Childhood Social Development (2014, with Peter K. Smith).
He was an international member of the Society for Research in Child Development (SRCD) Committee on Equity and Justice in Childhood (2010-2016). In 2014 he became an Elected Fellow of The Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues (SPSSI), Division 9 of the American Psychological Association (APA) and an organizational affiliate of the American Psychological Society (APS), in recognition of outstanding contributions to psychology and to the study of social issues.
Adam's research interests are focused on social and moral development, including these topics: social exclusion and inclusion within intergroup contexts; prejudice development; group dynamics and bullying; prosocial behavior and bystander challenging; STEM engagement, identity and stereotyping among minoritized youth; development of social identity, acculturation and psychological well-being among ethnic minoritized youth; interventions to reduce the social exclusion of stigmatized youth
PhD Psychology (University of Stirling, Scotland)
BSc. (Hons.) Psychology (Loughborough University, England)
Adam Rutland studied Psychology at Loughborough University, England and obtained a PhD in Psychology in 1993 from the University of Stirling, Scotland. He was a Post-doctoral Researcher and British Academy Post-Doctoral Research Fellow at the University of Surrey, England from 1993-1997. Between 1997-2000 he was a Lecturer in Psychology at the University of Aberdeen, Scotland. Adam moved to the University of Kent, England in 2000 and there he was a Lecturer in Psychology (2000-04), Senior Lecturer in Psychology (2004-05), Reader in Psychology (2005-07) and Professor of Psychology (2007-12). He became a Professor of Psychology at Goldsmiths, University of London in 2012. In the same year he became a Special Elected Member of the Graduate Faculty, Graduate School, University of Maryland, College Park, USA. Adam joined the University of Exeter as a Professor of Psychology in 2019.
Research group links
Developmental intergroup processes: Social and moral decision making about social exclusion and inclusion in childhood and adolescence; Development of bystander reactions to the social exclusion of immigrants; Group norms and the development of resource allocation; Changing STEM identity, stereotypes, motivation and career aspirations among diverse populations of children and adolescents: Peer relationships and psychological well-being among children; Acculturation, bi-cultural identification, social inclusion and social-emotional development among ethnic minority status children and adolescents.
Gönültaş S, Ketzitzidou Argyri E, Yüksel AŞ, Palmer SB, McGuire L, Killen M, Rutland A. (2022). British Adolescents Are More Likely Than Children to Support Bystanders Who Challenge Exclusion of Immigrant Peers. Frontiers in Psycholology, 13. 10.3389/fpsyg.2022.837276
Yüksel, A. & Palmer, S. B. & Ketzitzidou Argyri, Eirini & Rutland, Adam. (2022). When do bystanders get help from teachers or friends? Age and group membership matter when indirectly challenging social exclusion. Frontiers in Psychology. 13. 10.3389/fpsyg.2022.833589.
Killen, M., & Rutland, A. (2022). Promoting Fair and Just School Environments: Developing Inclusive Youth. Policy Insights from the Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 9(1), 81–89. https://doi.org/10.1177/23727322211073795
Mulvey, K. L., McGuire, L., Mathews, C., Hoffman, A. J., Law, F., Joy, A., Hartstone-Rose, A., Winterbottom, M., Balkwill, F., Fields, G., Butler, L., Burns, K., Drews, M., & Rutland, A. (2022). Preparing the Next Generation for STEM: Adolescent Profiles Encompassing Math and Science Motivation and Interpersonal Skills and Their Associations With Identity and Belonging. Youth & Society, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1177/0044118X221085296
Farooq, A., Ketzitzidou Argyri, E., Adlam, A. & Rutland, A. (2022). Children and Adolescents' Ingroup Biases and Developmental Differences in Evaluations of Peers Who Misinform. Frontiers in Psychology, 13. 10.3389/fpsyg.2022.835695.
Wallrich, L., West, K. & Rutland, A. (2022). Valuing diversity: An undervalued mediator of intergroup contact. European Journal of Soial Psychology, 52, 160-173. 10.1002/ejsp.2822
McGuire, L., Palmer, S. B. & Rutland, A. (2022). Children's and adolescents' evaluations of peers who challenge their group: The role of gender norms and identity. Social Development, 31, 423-437. doi. 10.1111/sode.12546
McGuire, L., A. J. Hoffman, K. L. Mulvey, M. Winterbottom, F. Balkwill, K. P. Burns, M. Chatton, M. Drews, N. Eaves, G. E. Fields, A. Joy, F. Law, A. Rutland & A. Hartstone-Rose (2022) Impact of Youth and Adult Informal Science Educators on Youth Learning at Exhibits, Visitor Studies, 25:1, 41-59, DOI: 10.1080/10645578.2021.1930467
Matthews, C., McGuire, L., Joy, A., Law, F., Winterbottom, M., Rutland, A., Drews, M. Hoffman, A., Mulvey, K., Hartstone-Rose, A., (2021). Assessing adolescents’ critical health literacy: How is trust in government leadership associated with knowledge of COVID-19? PLOS One, 16, 11. 10.1371/journal.pone.0259523
Yuksel, A.S., Palmer, S. B. & Rutland, A. (2021). Developmental Differences in Bystander Behavior Toward Intergroup and Intragroup Exclusion. Developmental Psychology, 57, 1342-1349. doi: 10.1037/dev0001202
McGuire L, Monzavi T, Hoffman AJ, Law F, Irvin MJ, Winterbottom M, Hartstone-Rose A, Rutland A., Burns KP, Butler L, et al (2021). Science and Math Interest and Gender Stereotypes: the Role of Educator Gender in Informal Science Learning Sites. Frontiers in Psychology, 12. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.503237
Palmer, S. B., Filippou, A., Argyri, E. K. & Rutland, A. (2021). Minority- and majority-status bystander reactions to, and reasoning about, intergroup social exclusion. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 214: doi 10.1016/j.jecp.2021.105290
Law F, McGuire L, Winterbottom M. and Rutland A. (2021) Children’s Gender Stereotypes in STEM Following a One-Shot Growth Mindset Intervention in a Science Museum. Frontiers in Psychology. 12:641695. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.641695
Joy A, Law F, McGuire L, Mathews C, Hartstone-Rose A, Winterbottom M, Rutland A, Fields GE, Mulvey KL (2021). Understanding Parents’ Roles in Children’s Learning and Engagement in Informal Science Learning Sites. Frontiers in Psychology, 12. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.635839
Wallrich, L., Palmer, S. B. & Rutland, A. (2021). Adolescents challenging discrimination: The benefits of a perspective-taking and action-planning intervention on self-efficacy. Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology, 31, 530-536. doi 10.1002/casp.2530.
Mulvey, K.L., McGuire, L., Hoffman, A. J., Goff, E., Rutland, A. Winterbottom, M., Balkwill, F., Irwin, M., Fields, G., Burns, K., Drews, M., Law, F., Joy, A. & Hartstone-Rose, A. (2020). Interest and learning in informal science learning sites: Differences in experiences with different types of educators. PLOS One, 15: e0236279. doi 10.1371/journal.pone.0236279
McGuire, L. & Rutland, A. (2020). Children and adolescents coordinate group and moral concerns within different goal contexts when allocating resources. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 38, 529-542. doi:10.1111/bjdp.12342
Hoffman, A. J., McGuire, L., Rutland, A., Hartstone-Rose, A., Irvin, M. J., Winterbottom, M., Balkwill, F., Fields, G. E. & Mulvey K. L. (2020). The Relations and Role of Social Competencies and Belonging with Math and Science Interest and Efficacy for Adolescents in Informal STEM Programs. Journal of Youth and Adolescence. Published online 17 August 2020. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-020-01302-1
Mulvey, K. L., McGuire, L., Hoffman, A. J., Hartstone-Rose, A., Winterbottom, M., Balkwill, F., Fields, G. E., Burns, K., Drews, M., Chatton, M., Eaves, N., Law, F., Joy, A., & Rutland, A. (2020). Learning hand in hand: Engaging in research-practice partnerships to advance developmental science. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 2020, 125-134. doi: 10.1002/cad.20364
McGuire, L., Jefferys, E., & Rutland, A. (2020). Children’s evaluations of deviant peers in the context of science and technology: The role of gender group norms and status. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 195, July 2020, 104845. doi: 10.1016/j.jecp.2020.104845
McGuire, L., Mulvey, K. L., Goff, E., Irvin, M. J., Winterbottom, M., Fields, G. E., Hartstone-Rose, A. & Rutland, A. (2020). STEM gender stereotypes from early childhood through adolescence at informal science centers. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology. doi: 10.1016/j.appdev.2020.101109
Wallrich, L., West, K. & Rutland, A. (2020). Painting all foreigners with one brush? How the salience of Muslims and refugees shapes judgements. Journal of Social and Political Psychology, 8, 246–265. doi: 10.5964/jspp.v8i1.1283
Mulvey KL, McGuire L, Hoffman AJ, Hartstone-Rose A, Winterbottom M, Balkwill F, Fields GE, Burns K, Drews M, Chatton M, Eaves N, Law F, Joy A, Rutland A. (2020). Learning hand in hand: Engaging in research-practice partnerships to advance developmental science. New Dir Child Adolesc Dev.,172, 125-134. doi: 10.1002/cad.20364.
Jones, S. E. & Rutland, A. (2019). Children’s social appraisal of exclusion in friendship groups. International Journal of Bullying Prevention. Open Access. doi: 10.1007/s42380-019-00022-w
McGuire, L., Elenbaas, L., Killen, M. & Rutland, A. (2019). The role of ingroup norms and group status in children's and adolescents' decisions to rectify resource inequalities. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 37, 309-322. doi: 10.1111/bjdp.12274
McGuire, L., Rizzo, M. T., Killen, M. & Rutland, A., (2019). The role of competitive and cooperative norms in the development of deviant evaluation. Child Development, 90, 703-717. doi: 10.1111/cdev.13094
McGuire, L., Rizzo, M. T., Killen, M., & Rutland, A. (2018). The development of intergroup resource allocation: The role of cooperative and competitive in-group norms. Developmental Psychology, 54, 1499-1506. doi:10.1037/dev0000535
Jones, S. E. & Rutland, A. (2018). Attitudes toward immigrants among the youth: Contact interventions to reduce prejudice in the school context. European Psychologist, 23, 83-92. doi: 10.1027/1016-9040/a000310
McGuire, L., Manstead, A. & Rutland, A. (2017). Group norms, intergroup resource allocation and social reasoning among children and adolescents. Developmental Psychology, 53, 2333-2339. doi: 10.1037/dev0000392
Palmer, S., Cameron, L., Rutland, A., & Blake, B. (2017). Majority- and minority-ethnic status adolescents’ bystander responses to racism in school. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 27, 374-380. doi: 10.1002/casp.2313
Benbow A, & Rutland A. (2017) Competence matters! Understanding biculturalism in ethnically diverse adolescents. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 27, 366-373. doi: 10.1002/casp.2312
Jugert, P., Rutland, A., Brown, R. J., Cameron, L., Nigbur, D., Watters, C., Hossain, R., Landau, A. and LeTouze, D. (2017). Increasing Ethnic Diversity Moderates Longitudinal Effects of Individual Differences on Friendship Homophily. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 27, 411-423. doi: 10.1002/casp.2319.
Bagci, S. C., Kumashiro, M., Rutland, A., Smith, P. K. & Blumberg, H. (2017). Cross-ethnic friendships, psychological well-being and academic outcomes: Study of South Asian and White children in the UK. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 14, 190-205 doi: 10.1080/17405629.2016.1185008
Rutland, A. & Killen, M. (2017). Fair resource allocation among children and adolescents: The role of group and developmental processes. Child Development Perspective,11, 56-62. doi: 10.1111/cdep.12211
Killen, M., Rutland, A., & Yip, T. (2016). Equity and justice in developmental science: Discrimination, social exclusion, and intergroup attitudes. Child Development, 87, 1317-1336. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cdev.12593
Leman, P., Skipper, Y, Watling, D, & Rutland, A. (2016). Conceptual change in science is facilitated through peer collaboration for boys but not for girls. Child Development, 87, 176-183. doi: 10.1111/cdev.12481
Killen, M., Elenbaas, L., & Rutland, A. (2015). Balancing the fair treatment of others while preserving group identity and autonomy. Human Development, 58, 253–272. doi: 10.1159/000444151
Palmer, S. B., Rutland, A., & Cameron, L. (2015). The development of bystander intentions and social-moral reasoning about intergroup verbal aggression. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 33, 419-433. doi:10.1111/bjdp.12092
McGuire, L., Rutland, A. & Nesdale, D. (2015). Peer group norms and accountability moderate the effect of school norms on children's intergroup attitudes. Child Development, 86, 1290-1297. doi.org/10.1111/cdev.12388
Rutland, A., Hitti, A., Mulvey, K. L, Abrams D. & Killen, M. (2015). When does the in-group like the out-group?: Bias among children as a function of group norms. Psychological Science, 26, 834-842. doi.org/10.1177/0956797615572758
Rutland, A. & Killen, M. (2015). A developmental science approach to reducing prejudice and social exclusion: Intergroup processes, social-cognitive development and moral reasoning. Social Issues and Policy Review, 9, 121-154. doi.org/10.1111/sipr.12012
Mulvey, K. L., Hitti, A., Rutland, A., Abrams, D. & Killen, M. (2014). Context differences in children's ingroup preferences. Developmental Psychology, 50, 1507-1519. doi: 10.1037/a0035593.
Abrams, D., Rutland, A., Palmer, S., Pelletier, J., Ferrell, J. & Lee, S. (2014). The role of cognitive abilities in children’s inferences about social atypicality and peer exclusion and inclusion in intergroup contexts. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 32, 233-247. doi: 10.1111/bjdp.12034.
Abrams, D., Rutland, A., Palmer, S., & Purewal, K. (2014). Children's responses to social atypicality among group members - advantages of a contextualized social developmental account. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 32, 257-261. doi: 10.1111/bjdp.12053
Hitti, A., Mulvey, K. L., Rutland, A., Abrams, D. & Killen, M. (2014). When is it Okay to exclude a member of the ingroup?: Children’s and adolescents’ social reasoning. Social Development, 23, 451-469. doi: 10.1111/sode.12047.
Abrams, D., Palmer, S., Rutland, A., Cameron, L. & Van de Vyver, J. (2014). Evaluations of, and reasoning about, normative and deviant ingroup and outgroup Members: Development of the Black Sheep Effect. Developmental Psychology, 50, 258-270. doi: 10.1037/a0032461.
Bagci, S. C., Rutland, A., Kumashiro, M., Smith, P. K. & Blumberg, H. (2014). Are minority status children's cross-ethnic friendships beneficial in a multiethnic context? British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 32, 233–247. doi: 10.1111/bjdp.12028.
Bagci, S. C., Kumashiro, M., Smith, P. K., Blumberg, H. & Rutland, A. (2014). Cross-ethnic friendships: Are they really rare? Evidence from secondary schools around London. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 41, 125-137. doi: 10.1016/j.ijintrel.2014.04.001.
Mulvey, K.L., Hitti, A., Rutland, A., Abrams, D., & Killen, M. (2014). When do children dislike ingroup members? Resource allocation from individual and group perspectives. Journal of Social Issues, 70, 28-45. doi: 10.1111/josi.12045
Brown, R., Baysu, G., Cameron, L., Nigbur, D. Rutland, A., Watters, C., Hossain, R., LeTouze, D. and Landau, A. (2013). Acculturation attitudes and social adjustment in British South Asian children: A longitudinal study. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. 39, 1656-1667. doi: 10.1177/0146167213500149.
Jugert, P., Noack, P. & Rutland, A. (2013): Children’s cross-ethnic friendships: Why are they less stable than same-ethnic friendships? European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 10, 649-662. doi:10.1080/17405629.2012.734136
Killen, M., Rutland, A., Abrams, D., Mulvey, K. L., & Hitti, A. (2013). Development of intra- and intergroup judgments in the context of moral and social-conventional norms. Child Development, 84, 1063-1080. doi: 10.1111/cdev.12011
Killen, M., Mulvey, K. L., Hitti. A. & Rutland, A. (2012). What works to address prejudice? Look to developmental science research for the answer. Commentary. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 35, 29. doi:10.1017/S0140525X1100221
Rutland, A., Cameron, L., Nigbur, D., Brown, R., Hossain, R., Landau, A., Le Touze, D., & Watters, C. (2012). Group identity and peer relations: A longitudinal study of group identity, perceived peer acceptance and friendships amongst ethnic minority English children. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 30, 283-302. doi: 10.1111/j.2044-835X.2011.02040.x
Killen, M., Rutland, A. & Ruck, M. (2012). Promoting equity and justice in childhood: Policy implications. Social Policy Report, 25, 4, 1-25.
Palmer, S. & Rutland, A. (2011). Do children want skinny friends? The role of ‘weight’ in children’s friendship preferences and intergroup attitudes. Anales de Psicologia, 27, 698-707.
Cameron, L., Rutland, A., Turner, R. Holman-Nicolas, R. & Powell, C. (2011). Changing attitudes with a little imagination’: Imagined contact effects on young children’s intergroup bias. Anales de Psicologia, 27, 708-717.
Cameron, L., Rutland, A. & Hossain, R. (2011). When and why does extended contact work? The role of high quality direct contact and group norms in the development of positive ethnic intergroup attitudes amongst children. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 14, 193-206. doi: 10.1177/1368430210390535
Rutland, A., Killen, M. & Abrams, D. (2010). A new social-cognitive developmental perspective on prejudice: The interplay between morality and group identity. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 5, 279-291. doi: 10.1177/1745691610369468
Fitzroy, S. & Rutland, A. (2010). Learning to control ethnic intergroup bias in childhood. European Journal of Social Psychology, 40, 679-693. doi: 10.1002/ejsp.746
Feddes, A. R., Noack, P. & Rutland, A. (2009). Direct and extended friendship effects on minority and majority children’s interethnic attitudes: A longitudinal study. Child Development, 80, 377-390. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2009.01266.x
Abrams, D., Rutland, A., Pelletier, J. & Ferrell, J. (2009). Children’s group nous: Understanding and applying peer exclusion within and between groups. Child Development, 80, 224-243. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2008.01256.x
Carey, D. P., Smith, D. T., Martin, D., Smith, G., Skriver, J., Rutland, A. & Shepherd, J. W. (2009). The bi-pedal ape: Plasticity and asymmetry in footedness. Cortex, 45, 650-661. doi: 10.1037/t23111-000
Abrams, D., Rutland, A., Ferrell, J., & Pelletier, J. (2008). Children’s judgments of disloyal and immoral peer behaviour: Subjective group dynamics in minimal intergroup contexts. Child Development, 79, 444-461. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2007.01135.x
Kamu, C. & Rutland, A. (2008). A quasi-experiment on the effects of superordinate categorisation on liking of people from other nations. Psychology and Developing Societies, 20, 183-208. doi: 10.1177/097133360802000203
Nigbur, D., Brown, R., Cameron, L., Hossain, R., Landau, A., Le Touze, D., Rutland A. & Watters, C. (2008). Acculturation, well-being and classroom behaviour among white British and British Asian primary-school children in the south-east of England: Validating a child-friendly measure of acculturation attitudes. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 32, 493-504. doi: 10.1016/j.ijintrel.2008.03.001
Rutland, A., Cinnirella, M. & Simpson, R. (2008). Stability and variability in national and European self-identification. European Psychologist, 13, 267-276. doi: 10.1027/1016-9040.13.4.267
Rutland, A. Abrams, D., & Levy, S. (2007). Extending the conversation: Transdisciplinary approaches to social identity and intergroup attitudes in children and adolescents. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 31, 417-418. doi: 10.1177/0165025407083669
Hossain, R., Watter, C., Brown, R. J., Cameron, L., Landau, A., LeTouze, D., Nigbur, D. & Rutland, A. (2007). Social capital, ethnicity and children’s well-being: Aspects of social capital in the everyday lives of British Punjabi children. International Journal of Migration, Health, and Social Care, 3, 4-21.
Cameron, L., Rutland, A. & Brown, R. J. (2007). Promoting children’s positive intergroup attitudes towards stigmatized groups: Extended contact and multiple classification skills training. International Journal of Behaviorial Development, 31, 454–466. doi.: 10.1177/0165025407081474
Rutland, A., Abrams, D. & Cameron, L. (2007). Children’s attitudes towards nonconformists: Intergroup relations and social exclusion in middle childhood. International Journal of School Disaffection, 4, 45-52.
Abrams, D., Rutland, A., Cameron, L. & Ferrell, J. (2007). Older but Wilier: Ingroup accountability and the development of subjective group dynamics. Developmental Psychology, 43, 134-148. doi: 10.1037/0012-16188.8.131.52
Rutland, A., Brown, R. J., Cameron, L. & Ahmavaara, A. (2007). Development of the positive-negative asymmetry effect: In-group exclusion norm as a mediator of children’s evaluations on negative attributes. European Journal of Social Psychology, 37, 171-190. doi: 10.1002/ejsp.342
Cameron, L., Rutland, A., Brown, R. J. & Douch, R. (2006). Changing children’s intergroup attitudes towards refugees: Testing different models of extended contact. Child Development, 77, 1208-1219. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2006.00929.x
Cameron, L. & Rutland, A. (2006). Extended contact through story reading in school: Reducing children’s prejudice towards the disabled. Journal of Social Issues, 62, 489-510. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4560.2006.00469.x
Rutland, A., Cameron, L., Milne, A. & McGeorge, P. (2005). Social norms and self-presentation: Children’s implicit and explicit intergroup attitudes. Child Development, 76, 451-466. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2005.00856.x
Rutland, A., Cameron, L., Bennett, L. & Ferrell, J. (2005). Interracial contact and racial constancy: A multi-site study of racial intergroup bias in 3-5 year old Anglo-British children. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 26, 699-713. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.appdev.2005.08.005
Kamu, C. & Rutland, A. (2005). The global ‘order’, socioeconomic status and the economics of African identity. African Identities, 3, 171-193.
Abrams, D., Rutland, A. & Cameron, L. (2003). The development of subjective group dynamics: Children’s judgments of normative and deviant in-group and out-group individuals. Child Development, 74, 1840-1856. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1467-8624.2003.00641.x
Finlay, M. & Rutland, A. (2003). “They were brilliant, I don’t know what I would’ve done if they hadn’t been there”: The group concept problem revisited. Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology, 13, 300-313.
Abrams, D., Rutland, A., Cameron, L. & Marques, J. (2003). The development of subjective group dynamics: When ingroup bias gets specific. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 21, 155-176. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/026151003765264020
Rutland, A. (2002). Review of ‘Self & Nation’ by S. Reicher & N. Hopkins, European Bulletin of Social Psychology, 14, 1, 12-13.
Rutland, A. (2001). Where are we now? Social identity theory, past, present and future: Review of D. Capozza & R. Brown ‘Social Identity Processes – Trends in Theory and Research’. Social Psychological Review, 3, 25-32.
Crabtree, J. & Rutland, A. (2001). Self-evaluation and social comparison amongst adolescents with learning difficulties. Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology, 11, 347-359. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/casp.634
Rutland, A. & Brown, R. (2001). Stereotypes as justifications for prior intergroup discrimination: Studies of Scottish national stereotyping. European Journal of Social Psychology, 31, 1-17. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejsp.25
Carey D. P., Smith G., Smith D. T., Shepherd J.W., Skriver J., Ord L. & Rutland A. (2001). Footedness in world soccer: An analysis of France '98. Journal of Sports Sciences, 19, 855-864.
Rutland, A., & Cinnirella, M. (2000). Context effects on Scottish national and European self-categorization: The importance of category accessibility, fragility and relations. British Journal of Social Psychology, 39, 495-519. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/014466600164606
Rutland, A. (1999). The development of national prejudice, in-group favouritism and self-stereotypes in British children. British Journal of Social Psychology, 38, 55-70. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/014466699164031
Rutland, A. (1998). English children's geo-political knowledge of Europe. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 16, 439-445. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-835X.1998.tb00763.x
Rutland, A. (1998). Social representations of Europe amongst 10-16 year old British children. Papers on Social Representations, 7, 61-75.
Rutland, A. (1996). European identity among English children: A Vygotskian approach. Swiss Journal of Psychology, 55, 150-160.
Rutland, A. (1996). The development of a national and European identity in children and adolescents. International Journal of Psychology, 31, 3794.
Rutland, A. F. & Campbell, R. (1996). The relevance of Vygotsky's theory of the 'zone of proximal development' to the assessment of children with intellectual disabilities. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 40, 151-158.
Rutland, A. & Campbell, R. (1995). The validity of dynamic assessment methods for children with learning difficulties and nondisabled children. Journal of Cognitive Education, 5, 81-94.
Rutland, A., Custance, D. & Campbell, R. (1993). The ability of 3-4 year old children to use a map in a large-scale environment. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 13, 365-372. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0272-4944(05)80258-0
Rutland, A. (1991). The zone of proximal development: A mutual construction of meaning between adults and children with a learning difficulty. Quarterly Newsletter of the Laboratory of Comparative Human Cognition, 13, 38-42.
Rutland, A., Nesdale, D. & Spears Brown, C. (Eds.) (2017). The Wiley-Blackwell Handbook of Group Processes in Children and Adolescents. Wiley-Blackwell Handbook of Developmental Psychology Series. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell
Smith, P. K., & Rutland, A. (2014). Childhood Social Development: Five-volume Set (Sage Library in Developmental Psychology). London: Sage. ISBN 978144627165.
Rutland, A., Palmer, S.B., Yüksel, A.& Grütter, J. (2023). Social Exclusion: The Interplay between Morality and Group Processes. Handbook of Moral Development, 3rd Edition. M. Killen & Smetana (Eds). Routledge. ISBN 9780367497545
Palmer S B, Mulvey K L, Rutland A .(2021). Developmental differences in evaluations of and reactions to bullying among children and adolescents. In Smith PK, O'Higgins-Norman J (Eds.) Handbook of Bullying, Wiley-Blackwell.
McGuire, L. & Rutland, A. (2019). Group dynamics. In S. Hupp & J. Jewell (Eds.). The Encyclopedia of Child and Adolescent Development. Chichester, West Sussex; Wiley.
Killen, M., Rutland, A, Rizzo, M. & McGuire, L. (2018). Intergroup exclusion, moral judgments, and social cognition. In W. M. Bukowski, B. Laursen, & K. H. Rubin (2018) (Eds.), Handbook of Peer Interactions, Relationships, and Groups (pp. 470-487). New York: Guilford Publications.
Smith P., K., Thompson, F., Rutland, A. et al., (2018). Issues in cross-national comparisons and the meaning of words for bullying in different languages. In P. K. Smith et al., (Eds.), Bullying, cyberbullying and student well-being in schools: Comparing European, Australian and Indian perspectives (pp. 61-80). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Killen, M., Elenbaas, L., Rizzo, M. & Rutland, A. (2017). The role of group processes in social exclusion and resource allocation decisions. In A. Rutland, D. Nesdale & C. Spears Brown (Eds.), Wiley-Blackwell Handbook of Group Processes in Children and Adolescents. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
Nesdale, D., Spear Brown, C. & Rutland, A. (2017). Researching children’s social groups: Methods and measures. In A. Rutland, D. Nesdale & C. Spears Brown (Eds.), Wiley-Blackwell Handbook of Group Processes in Children and Adolescents. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
Rodrigues, R. B., Rutland, A. & Collins, E. (2016). The multi-norm structural social-developmental model of children’s intergroup attitudes: Integrating intergroup-loyalty and outgroup fairness norms. In J. Vala, S. Waldzus, M. M. Calheiros (Eds), The Social Developmental Construction of Violence and Intergroup Conflict. New York: Springer Publishing.
Cameron, L. & Rutland, A. (2016). Researcher–Practitioner partnerships in the development of intervention to reduce prejudice among children. In K. Durkin & H. R. Schaffer (Eds.), Wiley-Blackwell Handbook of Developmental Psychology in Practice: Implementation and Impact. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
Rutland, A. (2013). How do children learn to actively control their explicit biases: The role of recursive reasoning about mental states and group norms? In M. R. Banaji & S. A. Gelman (Eds.), Navigating the Social World: What Infants, Children, and other Species Can Teach Us (pp. 336-340). Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
Abrams, D. & Rutland, A. (2011). Children’s understanding of deviance and group dynamics: The development of subjective group dynamics. In J. Jetten & M. J. Hornsey (Eds.), Rebels In Groups: Dissent, Deviance, Difference and Defiance. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
Rutland, A. (2010). Children, stereotypes and prejudice. In J. M. Levine & M. Hogg (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Group Processes and Intergroup Relations. London: Sage Publications.
Watters, C., Hossain, R., Brown, R. & Rutland, A. (2009). Crossing thresholds –Acculturation and social capital in British Asian Children. In M. Wetherell (Ed.), Theorising Identities and Social Action (pp. 198-219). Basingstoke: Palgrave/Macmillan.
Killen, M., Rutland, A. & Jampol, N. (2008). Social exclusion in middle childhood and early adolescence. In K. H. Rubin, W. Bukowski & B. Laursen (Eds.), Handbook of Peer Interactions, Relationships, and Groups (pp. 249-266). New York: Guilford Publications.
Cameron, L. & Rutland, A. (2008). An integrative approach to changing children's intergroup attitudes. In S. Levy & M. Killen (Eds.), Intergoup attitudes and relations in childhood through adulthood (pp. 191-203). New York: Oxford University Press.
Abrams, D. & Rutland, A. (2008). The development of subjective group dynamics. In S. Levy & M. Killen (Eds.), Intergoup attitudes and relations in childhood through adulthood (pp. 47-65). New York: Oxford University Press.
Rutland, A. (2004). The development and self-regulation of intergroup attitudes in children. In M. Bennett and F. Sani (Eds.) The development of the social self. East Sussex, England: Psychology Press.
Rutland, A. (2003). Quasi-Experimental Methods. In G. Breakwell (Ed.), Doing Social Psychology. Oxford: Blackwell.
Rutland, A. (2001). Bias. In J. Mitchie (Ed.), Reader's Guide to the Social Sciences. London: Fitzroy Dearborn.
Rutland, A. (2001). Identification. In J. Mitchie (Ed.), Reader's Guide to the Social Sciences. London: Fitzroy Dearborn.
Uzzell, D., Rutland, A. & Wistance, D. (1995), Questioning Values in Environmental Education. In Y. Guerrier, N. Alexander, J. Chase & M. O'Brien (Eds.), Values and the Environment. Chichester: Wiley.
Adherence to COVID-19 public health practices in adolescence: The role of morality, group dynamics and personal choice, with Luke McGuire (P.I.). British Academy. September 2020 – May 2023. £9,563. Role: Co-I
Bystander reactions to the intergroup exclusion of immigrants among British children and adolescents. Economic and Social Research Council. July 2018 – July 2022, £630,000. Role: Sole P.I.
Examining the role of youth educators as learners and teachers in informal STEM learning sites, with Hartsone-Rose, A., Mulvey, K.L., (North Carolina State University) & Irwin, M. (University of South Carolina), Winterbottom, M. (University of Cambridge), Balkwill, F. and McOwan, P. (Queen Mary, University of London). A Bilateral US-UK Science Learning+ Partnership Grant funded by the Wellcome Trust/Economic and Social Research Council/National Science Foundation. September 2017 – September 2023. £760,000 (UK) and $1,128, 651 (US). Role: UK P.I.
Is there a relationship between malocclusion, peer relationships and bulling among school children? with DiBiase, A. (East Kent University Hospital NHS Trust) & Cobourne, M., (King's College, London). NHS/British Orthodontics Society. March 2016 – August 2019. £86,893. Role: Co-P.I.
The many colours of home: Effects of imagined contact on children's acceptance of immigrants, with Jones, S. (P.I.). British Academy/Leverhulme Trust. 2016. £9,275. Role. Co-I.
Ethnicity, learning and children's interactions at school, with Leman, P. & Watling, D., (Royal Holloway, University of London). Leverhulme Trust. 2011-2013, £85,000. Role: Co-I.
The role of group status and social norms in children’s peer exclusion behaviour, with Abrams D., British Academy. 2009-2011, £145,000. Role Co-I.
REACH project: Role models for Black British boys and young men, with Abrams, D. & Leader, T., Department of Communities and Local Government. 2008-9, £93,000. Role: Co-P.I.
Changing children’s attitudes towards stigmatized groups: Testing different models of Extended Contact, with Cameron, L. & Hossain, R., The British Academy 2006-7, £7,500. Role: Co-I.
Identities in transition: A longitudinal study of immigrant children, with Brown, R. (University of Sussex) & Watters, C. (University of Kent), Economic and Social Research Council Programme “Identities and Social Action”. 2004-2007, £275,000 (pre-FEC). Role: P.I. at Kent
Intergroup contact and ethnic identity: A national study of 4-5-year-old children, British Broadcasting Corporation. 2004, £3.500. Role: P.I.
Children’s evaluations of deviant ingroup and outgroup members, with Abrams, D., Economic and Social Research Council. 2003-2006, £106,000 (pre-FEC). Role: Co-I.
Evaluating interventions to reduce children’s prejudice towards immigrants, with Brown, R. J. & Cameron, L., Economic and Social Research Council. 2003-2005, £42,000 (pre-FEC) Role: P.I.
The effect of accountability to the peer group on children’s judgements of deviant group members, with Abrams, D., The British Academy. June-December 2003, £5,000. Role: Co-I.
The development and regulation of prejudice in children, with Milne, A. & McGeorge, P., (University of Aberdeen), Economic and Social Research Council. 2001-2003, £42,000 (pre-FEC). Role: P.I.
Children’s geo-political knowledge of Europe, British Academy, 1995-1996, £1,500. Role: P.I.
Children’s representations of Europe, Nuffield Foundation, 1995-1997, £5,000. Role: P.I.
Children & Young People's Wellbeing @ Exeter Research Network
- 2018 Economic and Social Research Council
Examining of when and why do children and adolescents challenge immigrant peer group exclusion as bystanders
- 2017 Wellcome Trust
Evaluation of STEM teen programs in informal science learning sites
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