Publications by year
Wilkins DJ, Levine M, Livingstone A (In Press). All click, no action? Online action, efficacy perceptions, and prior experience combine to affect future collective action. Computers in Human Behavior
Kellezi B, Wakefield JRH, Bowe M, Livingstone AG, Guxholi A (In Press). Communities as conduits of harm: a Social Identity analysis of appraisal, coping and justice-seeking in response to historic collective victimisation. Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology
Leach CW, Livingstone AG (In Press). Contesting the meaning of inter-group disadvantage: Towards a psychology of resistance. Journal of Social Issues
Jung J, Hogg MA, Livingstone A, Choi H-S (In Press). From Uncertain Boundaries to Uncertain Identity: Effects of Entitativity Threat on Identity-Uncertainty and Emigration. Journal of Applied Social Psychology
Wilkins D, Livingstone A, Levine M (In Press). Whose tweets? the rhetorical functions of social media use in developing the Black Lives Matter movement. British Journal of Social Psychology
Livingstone AG, Shepherd L, Spears R, Manstead ASR (In Press). “Fury, us”: Anger as a basis for new group self-categories. Cognition and Emotion
Livingstone AG, Spears R, Manstead ASR, Makanju D, Sweetman J (2023). Dilemmas of resistance: How concerns for cultural aspects of identity shape and constrain resistance among minority groups. European Review of Social Psychology, 1-43.
Livingstone AG, Spears R, Manstead A, Makanju D, Sweetman J (2022). Dilemmas of resistance: How concerns for cultural aspects of identity shape and constrain resistance among minority groups.
Brik T, Livingstone AG, Chayinska M, Bliznyuk E (2022). How feeling understood predicts trust and willingness to forgive in the midst of violent intergroup conflict: Longitudinal evidence from Ukraine.
Livingstone AG, Afyouni A, Vu N, Bedford SL, Kapantai I, Makanju D, Chayinska M, Gonzalez R, Carozzi PJ, Contreras C, et al (2022). You get us, so you like us: Feeling understood by an outgroup predicts more positive intergroup relations via perceived positive regard.
Livingstone AG, Sweetman J, Haslam SA (2021). Conflict, what conflict? Evidence that playing down “conflict” can be a weapon of choice for high‐status groups. European Journal of Social Psychology, 51(4-5), 659-674.
Makanju D, Livingstone AG, Sweetman J (2021). How group members appraise collective history: Appraisal dimensions of collective history and their role in in-group engagement.
Wilkins DJ, Livingstone AG, Levine M (2021). One of us or one of them? How “peripheral” adverts on social media affect the social categorization of sociopolitical message givers. Psychology of Popular Media, 10(3), 372-381.
Cornejo M, Rocha C, Castro D, Varela M, Manzi J, González R, Jiménez-Moya G, Carvacho H, Álvarez B, Valdenegro D, et al
(2021). The intergenerational transmission of participation in collective action: the role of conversation and political practices in the family. British Journal of Social Psychology
The intergenerational transmission of participation in collective action: the role of conversation and political practices in the family
In this study, we examined the intergenerational transmission of collective action from parents to children. Using a mixed-method approach combining quantitative and qualitative analysis, we analysed data from 100 dyads of activist parents in Chile (involved in the mobilizations against the dictatorship during the 1980s) and their adult children (N = 200). The quantitative analysis addressed the role of conversations about politics in the family. The results provided evidence of a direct association between those conversations and the frequency of participation in conventional and radical actions by the children, and an indirect association via children’s knowledge about parental involvement in past social movements. The qualitative phase, which used interviews and thematic analysis on a subsample of 24 dyads (N = 48), confirmed the role of political conversations, but also revealed the influence of other factors such as cultural consumption and joint political participation. This phase allowed the identification of factors that facilitate or hinder family transmission. Overall, the study highlights the relevance of family as a critical site of socialization that enables the intergenerational transmission of protest. Abstract
Livingstone AG (2021). What social identities can tell us about violence in social movements, and vice versa: a social-Psychological Response to “violence, social movements, and black freedom struggles: Ten theses toward a research agenda for scholars of contention today”. Contention, 9(1), 142-148.
(2021). “Being the change”: Dynamic change processes in the emergence of collective action.
“Being the change”: Dynamic change processes in the emergence of collective action
Whilst we know a great deal about why people engage in collective action, we know little about how and, perhaps more importantly, when this happens. In order to fully understand the process of becoming engaged in collective action we need to understand how and when action emerges, and the processes of change that people go through to become engaged. Adopting a mixed-methods approach, this thesis explores the change processes an individual may go through when becoming engaged in collective action in two ways: (1) a qualitative analysis of change that can be characterised as non-linear, sudden, or abrupt, and (2) a quantitative test of the within-person change processes involved in becoming engaged in collective action. This involved multiple experimental studies, as well as a multiverse analysis using secondary data collected in the context of a large scale social movement. Findings suggest that becoming engaged in collective action for participants was indeed characterised by moments of sudden, abrupt change. We also demonstrate the value in studying within-person change processes specifically, and the additional insights this can present. Abstract
Livingstone AG, Fernández Rodríguez L, Rothers A
(2020). "They just don't understand us": the role of felt understanding in intergroup relations. J Pers Soc Psychol
"They just don't understand us": the role of felt understanding in intergroup relations.
We report 5 studies examining the unique role of felt understanding in intergroup relations. In intergroup terms, felt understanding is the belief that members of an outgroup understand and accept the perspectives of ingroup members, including ingroup members' beliefs, values, experiences, and self-definition/identity. In Studies 1 (Scotland-U.K. relations; N = 5,033) and 2 (U.K.-EU relations; N = 861) felt understanding consistently and strongly predicted outcomes such as trust, action intentions, and political separatism, including participants' actual "Brexit" referendum vote in Study 2. These effects were apparent even when controlling for outgroup stereotypes and metastereotypes. Felt understanding was a unique predictor of outgroup trust and forgiveness in Study 3 (Catholic-Protestant relations in Northern Ireland; N = 1,162), and was a powerful predictor of political separatism even when controlling for specific, relational appraisals including negative interdependence and identity threat in Study 4 (Basque-Spanish relations; N = 205). Study 5 (N = 190) included a direct manipulation of felt understanding, which had predicted effects on evaluation of the outgroup and of ingroup-outgroup relations. Overall, the findings provide converging evidence for the critical role of felt understanding in intergroup relations. We discuss future research possibilities, including the emotional correlates of felt understanding, and its role in intergroup interactions. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved). Abstract
Livingstone AG, Windeatt S, Nesbitt L, Kerry J, Barr SA, Ashman L, Ayers R, Bibby H, Boswell E, Brown J, et al
(2020). Do you get us? a multi-experiment, meta-analytic test of the effect of felt understanding in intergroup relations. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology
Do you get us? a multi-experiment, meta-analytic test of the effect of felt understanding in intergroup relations
© 2020 Elsevier Inc. Felt understanding is a key determinant of positive inter-personal relations, but its role and potential benefits in intergroup relations have been neglected. In the first multi-study, pre-registered test of its intergroup effects, we manipulated intergroup felt understanding (understood vs. misunderstood by an outgroup) in six studies (N = 1195) and meta-analyzed its effects. The results in most intergroup contexts supported the prediction that feeling understood (vs. misunderstood) would lead to more positive intergroup orientations (r = 0.25) and action intentions (r = 0.12). These effects were distinct from the effects of feeling liked by an outgroup, which was also manipulated in each study. An important caveat was that the felt understanding manipulation's effect reversed when the outgroup was stereotypically low in competence, but high in warmth (older adults). Overall, the findings indicate the value of incorporating felt understanding into models of intergroup relations and how those relations can be improved. Abstract
(2020). Surveillance in the digital age: Exploring positive outcomes of surveillance in the form of group-based recognition.
Surveillance in the digital age: Exploring positive outcomes of surveillance in the form of group-based recognition
Narratives surrounding algorithmic surveillance typically emphasise negativity and concerns about privacy. In contrast, we argue that current research underestimates potentially positive consequences of algorithmic surveillance in the form of group-based recognition. Specifically, we test whether (accurate) algorithmic surveillance (i.e. the extent to which those surveilled believe surveillance mirrors their own self-concept) provides a vehicle for group-based recognition in two contexts: (1) those under outgroup surveillance and (2) surveillance from the perspective of stigmatised and misrecognised groups. In turn, we test whether this can lead to more positive (and less negative) feelings towards surveillance. Alongside this, we also test whether a countervailing negative pathway exists, whereby more accurate surveillance is associated with more privacy concern, and in turn, more negative (and less positive) feelings towards surveillance. The final study also tests whether positive perceptions of accurate surveillance arising through group-based recognition are limited only to misrecognised groups, or whether this is true for people more generally. Across seven studies, we test the core hypothesis that group-based recognition from accurate surveillance provides a basis for positive reactions to algorithmic surveillance that countervails the negative pathway through privacy concern. Overall, we found support for the positive pathway, whereby more accurate surveillance was associated with more positive feelings towards surveillance through group-based recognition. The positive pathway was present for both typically recognised and misrecognised groups. We also found partial support for the negative pathway; whereby privacy concern was associated with less positive feelings towards surveillance. However, we did not find that surveillance accuracy was associated with privacy concern; one implication of this is that the presence of surveillance per se overwhelms any additional effect of surveillance accuracy. Additionally, surveiller social identity (ingroup vs. outgroup) influenced both the positive and negative pathways: surveillance from an outgroup was considered less trustworthy than ingroup surveillance, which in turn predicted less positive outcomes in the form of more privacy concern and less group-based recognition. This thesis challenges the current techno-pessimistic view that algorithms are inherently negative and contributes to research that endeavours to gain a greater understanding of society’s relationship with algorithms and artificial intelligence. Abstract
Makanju D, Livingstone AG, Sweetman J (2020). Testing the effect of historical representations on collective identity and action. PLOS ONE, 15(4), e0231051-e0231051.
Susanto Y, Livingstone AG, Ng BC, Cambria E
(2020). The Hourglass Model Revisited. IEEE Intelligent Systems
The Hourglass Model Revisited
Recent developments in the field of AI have fostered multidisciplinary research in various disciplines, including computer science, linguistics, and psychology. Intelligence, in fact, is much more than just IQ: it comprises many other kinds of intelligence, including physical intelligence, cultural intelligence, linguistic intelligence, and emotional intelligence (EQ). While traditional classification tasks and standard phenomena in computer science are easy to define, however, emotions are still a rather mysterious subject of study. That is why so many different emotion classifications have been proposed in the literature and there is still no common agreement on a universal emotion categorization model. In this article, we revisit the Hourglass of Emotions, an emotion categorization model optimized for polarity detection, based on some recent empirical evidence in the context of sentiment analysis. This new model does not claim to offer the ultimate emotion categorization but it proves the most effective for the task of sentiment analysis. Abstract
González R, Alvarez B, Manzi J, Varela M, Frigolett C, Livingstone AG, Louis W, Carvacho H, Castro D, Cheyre M, et al
(2020). The Role of Family in the Intergenerational Transmission of Collective Action. Social Psychological and Personality Science
The Role of Family in the Intergenerational Transmission of Collective Action
© the Author(s) 2020. The present research demonstrates intergenerational influences on collective action participation, whereby parents’ past and current participation in collective action (descriptive family norms) shape their children’s participation in conventional and radical collective action via injunctive family norms (perception that parents value such participation). Two unique data sets were used: dyads of activist parents and their adult children (Study 1, N = 100 dyads) and student activists who participated in a yearlong, three-wave longitudinal study (Study 2, Ns wave 1 = 1,221, Wave 2 = 960, and Wave 3 = 917). Parents’ past and current participation directly and indirectly predicted children’s protest participation in Study 1, while Study 2 showed a similar pattern longitudinally: Perceptions of parents’ participation (descriptive family norm) and approval (injunctive family norm) predicted change in collective action participation over time. Together, results highlight family environment as a critical setting for the intergenerational transmission of protest. Abstract
Smith LGE, Livingstone AG, Thomas EF
(2019). Advancing the social psychology of rapid societal change. Br J Soc Psychol
Advancing the social psychology of rapid societal change.
In this introduction to the special section on rapid societal change, we highlight the challenges posed by rapid societal changes for social psychology and introduce the seven papers brought together in this special section. Rapid societal changes are qualitative transformations within a society that alter the prevailing societal state. Recent such changes include the election of right-wing populist governments, the Arab Spring revolutions, and devastating civil wars in the Middle East. Conceptually, such events require consideration of how societal-level events relate to more proximal psychological processes to bring about the often abrupt, non-linear (as opposed to incremental and linear) nature of rapid societal change. They also require empirical approaches that allow such qualitative transformations to be captured and studied. This is true both in terms of directly addressing rapidly unfolding societal events in research, and in terms of how rapid, discontinuous change can be analysed. The papers in the special section help to address these issues through introducing novel theoretical and methodological approaches to studying rapid societal change, offering multiple perspectives on how macro-level changes can both create, and be created by, micro-level social psychological phenomena. Abstract
. Author URL
Sweetman J, Maio G, Spears R, Manstead A, Livingstone A (2019). Attitude toward protest uniquely predicts (normative and nonnormative) political action by (advantaged and disadvantaged) group members. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 82, 115-128.
Makanju D, Livingstone AG, Sweetman J (2019). Testing the effect of historical representations on collective identity and action.
Thomas E, McGarty C, Spears R, Livingstone A, Platow MJ, Lala G, Mavor K
(2019). ‘That's not funny!’ Standing up against disparaging humor. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology
‘That's not funny!’ Standing up against disparaging humor
The current article addresses bystander action to confront disparaging humor as a form of moral courage. We ask: When is disparaging humor seen as harmless fun or as a pernicious form of prejudice? What are the social and psychological processes through which bystanders confront, evade, or collaborate in disparaging humor? Three experiments (Ns = 95, 213, 220), involving a novel paradigm (‘the shared media paradigm’) test the role of bystander emotional responses (anger/amusement) in shaping action to confront disparagement humor, through emotion-based social influence. Study 1 demonstrates that bystander action to confront disparagement humor as prejudice is shaped by the angry (but not amused) responses of co-present others. Study 2 considers a moderator of the influence process: the role of one's own emotional reaction to disparagement humor (angry/amused). Bystander confrontation was more intense when one's own angry reaction was validated by that of other bystanders but there was otherwise mixed evidence that the two interacted to promote collaboration/confrontation. Study 3 tests the claim that disparagement humor is especially challenging to confront because humor disarms opposition. Intergroup commentary was seen as more amusing and confrontation was more strongly resisted when humor was used (vs. a non-humorous control remark). Overall, the results show that the reactions of bystanders play an important role in shaping what is (or is not) perceived to be prejudice. Courageous action to confront the disparagement of members of minority groups is enabled by the emotional signals of others who are co-present. Abstract
Wilkins D, Livingstone AG, Levine M (2018). All click, no action? Online action, efficacy perceptions, and prior experience combine to affect future collective action.
Livingstone AG, Fernández L, Rothers A (2018). ‘They just don’t understand us’:. The role of felt understanding in intergroup relations.
Jones SE, Livingstone AG, Manstead ASR (2017). Bullying and Belonging. In (Ed) Self and Social Identity in Educational Contexts, 70-90.
Souchon N, Livingstone AG, Bardin B, Rascle O, Cabagno G, Maio GR
(2016). Influence of competition level on referees’ decision-making in handball. Social Influence
Influence of competition level on referees’ decision-making in handball
The influence of competition level on referees’ decision-making was investigated. Referees’ decisions in 90 handball games (30 games X 3 competition levels) were observed in different situations related to the advantage rule, and 100 referees from two different levels of expertise were subsequently asked to offer explanations for the competition-level effects from the first part of the study. Results revealed that at the highest level of competition referees intervened less frequently with sporting sanctions, but more frequently with disciplinary sanctions. These effects were apparent mainly in immediate intervention situations and unsuccessful advantage situations, but not in successful situations. Referees explained these effects of competition level in terms of a player competence stereotype, in addition to referees’ different expertise across competition level. The implications of the findings for understanding how status-related stereotypes impact on intervention behavior are discussed. Abstract
Smith JR, Louis WR, Tarrant M (2016). University students’ social identity and health behaviours. In Mavor KI, Platow M, Bizumic B (Eds.) The self, social identity, and education, Psychology Press.
Livingstone AG, McCafferty S (2015). Explaining reactions to normative information about alcohol consumption: a test of an extended social identity model. International Journal of Drug Policy, 26, 388-395.
Manstead ASR, Livingstone AG (2015). Research methods in Social Psychology. In Hewstone M, Stroebe W, Jonas K (Eds.) Introduction to Social Psychology: a European perspective, Oxford: Wiley, 25-54.
Livingstone AG, Sweetman J, Bracht EM, Haslam SA (2015). “We have no quarrel with you”: Effects of group status on characterizations of
“conflict” with an outgroup. European Journal of Social Psychology, 45, 16-26.
Jones SE, Manstead ASR, Livingstone AG (2014). Bullying and Belonging: Teachers’ Reports of School Aggression. Frontline Learning Research(3), 64-77.
Manstead ASR, Livingstone AG (2014). Forschungsmethoden in der Sozialpsychologie. In (Ed) Sozialpsychologie, 29-64.
(2014). Why the psychology of collective action requires qualitative transformation as well as quantitative change. Contemporary Social Science
Why the psychology of collective action requires qualitative transformation as well as quantitative change
The argument of this paper is that social psychological models of collective action do not (and cannot) adequately explain social change and collective action through models based on shared variance between variables. Over and above the questions of why and how collective action and social change occur, such models do not adequately address the question of when they occur: at what point on a measure of perceived illegitimacy - or any other predictor - does a person decide that enough is enough, and at what point do shared grievances transform into mass protest? Instead, it is argued that the transition from inaction to action at the level of both the individual and the group is better conceptualised as a qualitative transformation. A key agenda for the social psychology of collective action should therefore be to conceptualise the link between quantitative variation in predictors of action and the actual emergence of action. © 2013 Academy of Social Sciences. Abstract
Sweetman J, Spears R, Livingstone AG, Manstead ASR
(2013). Admiration regulates social hierarchy: Antecedents, dispositions, and effects on intergroup behavior. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology
Admiration regulates social hierarchy: Antecedents, dispositions, and effects on intergroup behavior
In four studies, we report evidence that admiration affects intergroup behaviors that regulate social hierarchy. We demonstrate that manipulating the legitimacy of status relations affects admiration for the dominant and that this emotion negatively predicts political action tendencies aimed at social change. In addition, we show that greater warmth and competence lead to greater admiration for an outgroup, which in turn positively predicts deferential behavior and intergroup learning. We also demonstrate that, for those with a disposition to feel admiration, increasing admiration for an outgroup decreases willingness to take political action against that outgroup. Finally,we showthatwhen the object of admiration is a subversive "martyr," admiration positively predicts political action tendencies and behavior aimed at challenging the status quo. These findings provide the first evidence for the important role of admiration in regulating social hierarchy. Abstract
Souchon N, Fontayne P, Livingstone A, Maio GR, Mellac N, Genolini C
(2013). External Influences on Referees' Decisions in Judo: the Effects of Coaches' Exclamations During Throw Situations. JOURNAL OF APPLIED SPORT PSYCHOLOGY
(2), 223-233. Author URL
Blackwood L, Livingstone AG, Leach CW (2013). Regarding societal change. Journal of Social and Political Psychology, 1(1), 105-111.
Souchon N, Livingstone AG, Maio GR (2013). The influence of referees’ expertise, gender, motivation, and time-constraints on decisional bias against women. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 35, 585-599.
Jones SE, Manstead ASR, Livingstone AG
(2012). Fair-Weather or Foul-Weather Friends? Group Identification and Children's Responses to Bullying. Social Psychological and Personality Science
Fair-Weather or Foul-Weather Friends? Group Identification and Children's Responses to Bullying
Research with adults shows that negative ingroup behavior can affect identification with the group, but also that the way in which members respond to negative events is moderated by prior levels of identification. Research with children shows that how strongly they identify with a group influences how they react to group-level bullying. The authors integrate these findings by examining how a bullying incident affects children's group identification. Children aged 7-8 and 10-11 years were randomly assigned to either a perpetrator group or a target group. They read a scenario describing a target group member being bullied by members of the perpetrator group. The perpetrator group had a norm of behaving either kindly or unkindly to other children. How strongly children in the perpetrator group identified with their group was influenced by group norm and by initial in-group identification. Identification was higher when the group was normatively kind rather than unkind, but only among children whose initial identification was high. © the Author(s) 2012. Abstract
Manstead ASR, Livingstone AG (2012). Research methods in Social Psychology. In Hewstone M, Stroebe W, Jonas K (Eds.) Introduction to Social Psychology: a European perspective, Oxford: Blackwell, 25-54.
Bernardes D, Wright J, Livingstone AG
(2012). Researching the mental health status of asylum seekers: Reflections and suggestions for practice. Diversity and Equality in Health and Care
Researching the mental health status of asylum seekers: Reflections and suggestions for practice
We used a multi-method approach to investigate aspects of the mental health of asylum seekers who had recently arrived in the UK. We used the Post-Migration Living Difficulties Scale, the Generalised Anxiety Disorder-7 Scale, the PTSD Symptom Scale Interview, the Clinical Outcomes Routine Evaluation and in-depth interviews. A total of 29 asylum seekers, 26 of whom were male, representing 13 countries, agreed to take part. This paper presents reflections on some of the challenges that arose during our investigation, and offers recommendations that may be of help to other researchers embarking on research in this field. © 2012 Radcliffe Publishing. Abstract
Cambria E, Livingstone A, Hussain A
(2012). The hourglass of emotions. Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)
, 7403 LNCS
The hourglass of emotions
Human emotions and their modelling are increasingly understood to be a crucial aspect in the development of intelligent systems. Over the past years, in fact, the adoption of psychological models of emotions has become a common trend among researchers and engineers working in the sphere of affective computing. Because of the elusive nature of emotions and the ambiguity of natural language, however, psychologists have developed many different affect models, which often are not suitable for the design of applications in fields such as affective HCI, social data mining, and sentiment analysis. To this end, we propose a novel biologically-inspired and psychologically-motivated emotion categorisation model that goes beyond mere categorical and dimensional approaches. Such model represents affective states both through labels and through four independent but concomitant affective dimensions, which can potentially describe the full range of emotional experiences that are rooted in any of us. © 2012 Springer-Verlag. Abstract
Jones SE, Bombieri L, Livingstone AG, Manstead ASR
(2012). The influence of norms and social identities on children's responses to bullying. British Journal of Educational Psychology
The influence of norms and social identities on children's responses to bullying
Background. Research on bullying increasingly focuses on social processes, showing that group membership affects children's responses to bullying scenarios. Additionally, correlational research has shown links between norms of cooperation and prosocial behaviour, and between competition and more aggressive forms of behaviour. Aims. This paper focuses on how children's peer group membership affects their group-based emotions in response to an intergroup bullying incident, and the action tendencies that these emotions predict, in the context of different background norms (for competitive or cooperative behaviour). Sample. Italian schoolchildren, 10-13 years old (N= 128, 65 males) took part in this study. Methods. Participants were randomly assigned to the group of a perpetrator, target, or third-party group member described in a scenario. Next, they played a game designed to induce a cooperative, competitive, or neutral norm, and read the scenario. They then answered a questionnaire measuring their group-based emotions. Results. Results underscored the role of norms and group processes in responses to bullying. In particular, children exposed to a cooperative norm expressed less pride and more regret and anger about the bullying than those in other conditions. Conclusions. This study indicates that the influence peer groups have on bullying may be tempered by the introduction of a cooperative normative context to the school setting. © 2011 the British Psychological Society. Abstract
Livingstone AG, Haslam SA, Postmes T, Jetten J
(2011). "We Are, Therefore We Should": Evidence That In-Group Identification Mediates the Acquisition of In-Group Norms. JOURNAL OF APPLIED SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
(8), 1857-1876. Author URL
Livingstone AG, Young H, Manstead ASR
(2011). "We drink, therefore we are": the role of group identification and norms in sustaining and challenging heavy drinking "culture". Group Processes and Intergroup Relations
"We drink, therefore we are": the role of group identification and norms in sustaining and challenging heavy drinking "culture"
We consider how ingroup norms, identification and individual attitudes interact when a behaviour (heavy alcohol consumption) is defining of an ingroup identity. We sampled 115 students at a UK university, measuring ingroup identification and attitudes to heavy drinking before manipulating the ingroup drinking norm (moderate vs. heavy). Heavy drinking intentions and tendencies to socially include/exclude two target students-one of whom drank alcohol regularly and one of whom did not-were measured. As predicted, participants with a positive attitude to heavy drinking and who identified strongly with the ingroup reported stronger intentions to drink heavily when the ingroup had a moderate, rather than a heavy drinking norm, indicating resistance to the normative information. A complementary pattern emerged for the social inclusion/exclusion measures. Implications for theory and interventions that focus on group norms are discussed. © the Author(s) 2011. Abstract
Jones SE, Manstead ASR, Livingstone AG
(2011). Ganging up or sticking together? Group processes and children's responses to text-message bullying. British Journal of Psychology
Ganging up or sticking together? Group processes and children's responses to text-message bullying
Drawing on social identity theory and intergroup emotion theory (IET), we examined group processes underlying bullying behaviour. Children were randomly assigned to one of three groups: a perpetrator's group, a target's group, or a third party group. They then read a gender-consistent scenario in which the norm of the perpetrator's group (to be kind or unkind towards others) was manipulated, and an instance of cyberbullying between the perpetrator's group and a member of the target's group was described. It was found that group membership, group norms, and the proposed antecedents of the group-based emotions of pride, shame, and anger (but not guilt) influenced group-based emotions and action tendencies in ways predicted by social identity and IET. The results underline the importance of understanding group-level emotional reactions when it comes to tackling bullying, and show that being part of a group can be helpful in overcoming the negative effects of bullying. ©2010 the British Psychological Society. Abstract
Livingstone AG, Manstead ASR, Spears R, Bowen D
(2011). The language barrier? Context, identity, and support for political goals in minority ethnolinguistic groups. British Journal of Social Psychology
The language barrier? Context, identity, and support for political goals in minority ethnolinguistic groups
In two studies, we tested the hypothesis that not having a potentially group-defining attribute (e.g. in-group language) can affect social identification and support for group goals (e.g. national autonomy). Focusing on the Welsh minority in the UK, Study 1 provided evidence that Welsh language fluency predicted Welsh identification and support for national autonomy, and that identification accounted for the language-autonomy association. Study 2 extended this by (1) examining British and English as well as Welsh identification; and (2) quasi-manipulating the surrounding context (Welsh speaking vs. non-Welsh speaking). As predicted, low Welsh language fluency predicted stronger British and English identification, but only where language was criterial (Welsh-speaking regions). British identification, in turn, predicted lower support for national autonomy. Implications and prospects for future research are discussed. © 2010 the British Psychological Society. Abstract
Livingstone AG, Spears R, Manstead ASR, Bruder M
(2011). The more, the merrier? Numerical strength versus subgroup distinctiveness in minority groups. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology
The more, the merrier? Numerical strength versus subgroup distinctiveness in minority groups
Evidence attests to the efforts made by minority groups to defend and promote 'distinctive' attributes that potentially define the ingroup. However, these attributes are often only available to a prototypical minority within the minority category. In two studies we tested the hypothesis that, under certain conditions, large projected increases in the numerical strength of a 'distinctive' attribute (emotional intelligence in Study 1; ingroup language in Study 2) within a minority category can paradoxically evoke less-than-positive reactions from those who already have the attribute. Findings confirmed that while a large projected increase in the numerical strength of a 'distinctive' attribute was viewed positively when the comparative context focused on the inter-category relation with a majority outgroup, this increase was viewed less positively, and as undermining their own identity, in a narrower intra-category context. Implications for identity management strategies in minority groups are discussed. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. Abstract
Livingstone AG, Spears R, Manstead ASR, Bruder M, Shepherd L
(2011). We Feel, Therefore We Are: Emotion as a Basis for Self-Categorization and Social Action. Emotion
We Feel, Therefore We Are: Emotion as a Basis for Self-Categorization and Social Action
Building on intergroup emotion research, we test the idea that intergroup emotion influences self-categorization. We report two studies using minimal (Study 1) and natural (Study 2) groups in which we measured participants' emotional reactions to a group-relevant event before manipulating the emotional reactions of other ingroup members and outgroup members (anger vs. happiness in Study 1; anger vs. indifference in Study 2). Results supported the hypotheses that (a) the fit between participants' own emotional reactions and the reactions of ingroup members would influence self-categorization, and (b) the specific content of emotional reactions would shape participants' willingness to engage in collective action. This willingness was greater when emotional reactions were not only shared with other group members, but were of anger (consistent with group-based action) rather than happiness or indifference (inconsistent with group-based action). Implications for the relationship between emotion and social identities are discussed. © 2011 American Psychological Association. Abstract
Bernardes D, Wright J, Edwards C, Tomkins H, Dlfoz D, Livingstone AG
(2010). Asylum seekers' perspectives on their mental health and views on health and social services: Contributions for service provision using a mixed-methods approach. International Journal of Migration, Health and Social Care
Asylum seekers' perspectives on their mental health and views on health and social services: Contributions for service provision using a mixed-methods approach
The literature tends to use 'asylum seeker' and 'refugee' interchangeably, creating uncertainty about the mental health of asylum seekers. However, asylum seekers occupy a unique position in British society which differentiates them from people with refugee status and which may have implications for their mental health. For example, 'asylum seekers' are supported and accommodated in dispersal areas under the National Asylum Support Service and they are not entitled to work. This mixed-methods study investigated asylum seekers' symptoms of psychological distress, using mental health screening questionnaires (N = 29) and asylum seekers' subjective experiences of the asylum process, its potential impacts on their mental health, and participants' suggestions for tackling mental health needs, using in-depth interviews (N = 8). Asylum seekers, refugees and practitioners working with asylum seekers were consulted from the outset regarding the cultural sensitivity of the measures used. Given the potential limitations of using 'idioms of distress' across cultures, interview data provided rich descriptive accounts which helped locate the mental health needs that the asylum seekers experienced in the specificities of each participant's social context. Asylum seekers originated from 13 countries. The results revealed that psychological distress is common among asylum seekers (for example anxiety and post-traumatic stress), but so are post-migratory living difficulties (for example accommodation, discrimination, worry about family back home, not being allowed to work). They also report mixed experiences of health and social care services. These results suggest that asylum seekers' unique social position may affect their mental health. Implications for practice are presented and potential limitations highlighted. © Pier Professional Ltd. Abstract
Souchon N, Cabagno G, Traclet A, Dosseville F, Livingstone A, Jones M, Maio GR
(2010). Referees' decision-making and player gender: the moderating role of the type of situation. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology
Referees' decision-making and player gender: the moderating role of the type of situation
The influence of player gender on referees' decision-making was examined in 30 handball matches played at the highest regional level. The results indicated that referees make more lenient decisions toward male players when administering sporting sanctions, but more severe decisions toward male players when administering disciplinary sanctions, depending on whether or not the players were able to succeed in their action despite the foul. The findings are congruent with the hypothesis that referees use player gender as a judgmental heuristic. We suggest that further experimental studies examining the effects of referee gender and level of expertise, and of level of competition are needed to better understand the extent and limits of referees' use of player gender as a decision-making heuristic. © Association for Applied Sport Psychology. Abstract
Livingstone A, Gilbert L, Haslam SA, Sweetman J (2010). The Role of Intergroup Status in Tendencies to Play up or Play Down Intergroup 'Conflict'.
Jones SE, Manstead ASR, Livingstone A
(2009). Birds of a feather bully together: Group processes and children's responses to bullying. British Journal of Developmental Psychology
Birds of a feather bully together: Group processes and children's responses to bullying
Recent research has shown that a group-level analysis can inform our understanding of school bullying. The present research drew on social identity theory and intergroup emotion theory. Nine- to eleven-year olds were randomly assigned to the same group as story characters who were described as engaging in bullying, as being bullied, or as neither engaging in bullying nor being bullied. Participants read a story in which a bully, supported by his or her group, was described as acting unkindly towards a child in a different group. Gender of protagonists and the bully's group norm (to be kind or unkind to other children) were varied. Identification affected responses to the bullying incident, such that those who identified more highly with each group favoured this group. Moreover, children's group membership predicted the group-based emotions they reported, together with the associated action tendencies. Implications for understanding the processes underlying bullying behaviour are discussed. © 2009 the British Psychological Society. Abstract
Jones SE, Manstead ASR, Livingstone A
(2009). Birds of a feather bully together: group processes and children's responses to bullying. Br J Dev Psychol
(Pt 4), 853-873.
Birds of a feather bully together: group processes and children's responses to bullying.
Recent research has shown that a group-level analysis can inform our understanding of school bullying. The present research drew on social identity theory and intergroup emotion theory. Nine- to eleven-year olds were randomly assigned to the same group as story characters who were described as engaging in bullying, as being bullied, or as neither engaging in bullying nor being bullied. Participants read a story in which a bully, supported by his or her group, was described as acting unkindly towards a child in a different group. Gender of protagonists and the bully's group norm (to be kind or unkind to other children) were varied. Identification affected responses to the bullying incident, such that those who identified more highly with each group favoured this group. Moreover, children's group membership predicted the group-based emotions they reported, together with the associated action tendencies. Implications for understanding the processes underlying bullying behaviour are discussed. Abstract
. Author URL
Livingstone AG, Spears R, Manstead ASR, Bruder M (2009). Defining common goals without speaking the same language: Social identity and social action in Wales. In Wetherell M (Ed) Theorizing identities and social action, London: Palgrave, 238-255.
Livingstone AG, Spears R, Manstead ASR, Bruder M
(2009). Illegitimacy and identity threat in (inter)action: Predicting intergroup orientations among minority group members. British Journal of Social Psychology
Illegitimacy and identity threat in (inter)action: Predicting intergroup orientations among minority group members
We test the hypothesis that intergroup orientations among minority group members are shaped by the interaction between the perceived illegitimacy of intergroup relations and identity threat appraisals, as well as their main effects. This is because together they serve to focus emotion-mediated reactions on the out-group's role in threatening in-group identity. In a large-scale field study (N = 646), conducted among the Welsh minority in the UK, we quasi-manipulated the extent to which Welsh identity was dependent on the 'threatened' Welsh language. Results supported our hypothesis that the illegitimacy × identity threat interaction would be strongest where Welsh identity was most dependent upon the Welsh language, and through intergroup anger would predict support for more radical, unconstitutional forms of action. © 2009 the British Psychological Society. Abstract
Livingstone AG, Spears R, Manstead ASR
(2009). The language of change? Characterizations of in-group social position, threat, and the deployment of 'distinctive' group attributes. British Journal of Social Psychology
The language of change? Characterizations of in-group social position, threat, and the deployment of 'distinctive' group attributes
A considerable body of research has shown that group members establish and emphasize characteristics or attributes that define their in-group in relation to comparison out-groups. We extend this research by exploring the range of ways in which members of the same social category (Welsh people) deploy a particular attribute (the Welsh language) as a flexible identity management resource. Through a thematic analysis of data from interviews and two public speeches, we examine how the deployment of the Welsh language is bound up with characterizations of the in-group's wider intergroup position (in terms of power relations and their legitimacy and stability), and one's position within the in-group. We focus in particular on the rhetorical and strategic value of such characterizations for policing in-group boundaries on the one hand, and for the in-group's intergroup position on the other.We conclude by emphasizing the need to (1) locate analyses of the uses and importance of group-defining attributes within the social setting that gives them meaning and (2) to appreciate such characterizations as attempts to influence, rather than simply reflect that setting. © 2009 the British Psychological Society. Abstract
Stott C, Livingstone A, Hoggett J
(2008). Policing football crowds in England and Wales: a model of 'good practice'?. POLICING & SOCIETY
(3), 258-281. Author URL
Stott C, Adang O, Livingstone A, Schreiber M
(2008). TACKLING FOOTBALL HOOLIGANISM: a Quantitative Study of Public Order, Policing and Crowd Psychology. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law
TACKLING FOOTBALL HOOLIGANISM: a Quantitative Study of Public Order, Policing and Crowd Psychology
This paper contributes to the science of crowd dynamics and psychology by examining the social psychological processes related to the relative absence of "hooliganism" at the Finals of the 2004 Union Européenne de Football Association (UEFA) Football (Soccer) Championships in Portugal. Quantitative data from a structured observational study is integrated with data from a questionnaire survey of a group associated ubiquitously with 'hooliganism' - namely England fans. This analysis provides support for the contention that the absence of 'disorder' can be attributed in large part to the non-paramilitary policing style adopted in cities hosting tournament matches. Evidence is presented which suggests that this style of policing supported forms of non-violent collective psychology that, in turn, served to psychologically marginalise violent groups from the wider community of fans. The study highlights the mutually constructive relationships that can be created between psychological theory, research, policing policy and practice, particularly in relation to the successful management of 'public order'. The paper concludes by exploring some of the wider implications of this research for theory, policy, the management of crowds, social conflict, and human rights more generally. © 2008 American Psychological Association. Abstract
Livingstone A, Haslam SA
(2008). The importance of social identity content in a setting of chronic social conflict: understanding intergroup relations in Northern Ireland. Br J Soc Psychol
(Pt 1), 1-21.
The importance of social identity content in a setting of chronic social conflict: understanding intergroup relations in Northern Ireland.
Two studies (N=117, 112) were conducted with school students in Northern Ireland to investigate the neglected relationship between social identity content and intergroup relations. Study 1 tested and found support for two hypotheses. The first was that the association between in-group identification and negative behavioural intentions would be moderated by antagonistic identity content. The second was that the antagonistic identity content mediates the relationship between the experience of intergroup antagonism and negative behavioural intentions. Study 2 replicated these findings at a time of reduced intergroup violence, and supplemented them with a qualitative-quantitative analysis of participants' written responses. In addition, findings demonstrate the importance of appreciating the content and meaning of social identities when theorizing about intergroup relations and developing conflict management interventions. Abstract
. Author URL
Reicher S, Stott C, Drury J, Adang O, Cronin P, Livingstone A (2007). Knowledge-Based Public Order Policing: Principles and Practice. Policing a Journal of Policy and Practice, 1(4), 403-415.
Stott C, Adang O, Livingstone A, Schreiber M
(2007). Variability in the collective behaviour of England fans at Euro2004: 'Hooliganism', public order policing and social change. European Journal of Social Psychology
Variability in the collective behaviour of England fans at Euro2004: 'Hooliganism', public order policing and social change
This paper presents an analysis of collective behaviour among England football fans attending the European football championships in Portugal (Euro2004). Given this category's violent reputation, a key goal was to explore the processes underlying their apparent shift away from conflict in match cities. Drawing from the elaborated social identity model of crowd behaviour (ESIM) data were obtained using semi-structured observations and interviews before, during and after the tournament. Qualitative analysis centres first on three key incidents in match cities where the potential for violence was undermined either by 'self-policing' among England fans, or by appropriately targeted police intervention. These are contrasted with two 'riots' involving England fans that occurred in Algarve during the tournament. A phenomenological analysis of England fans' accounts suggests that the contexts created by different forms of policing helped bring to the fore different understandings of what constituted proper and possible behaviour among England fans, and that these changes in identity content underpinned shifts toward and away from collective conflict. The implications of this analysis for the ESIM, understanding public order policing, social change and social conflict are discussed. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Abstract