Dr Lee Hogarth
Washington Singer 224
Washington Singer Laboratories, University of Exeter, Perry Road, Prince of Wales Road, Exeter, EX4 4QG, UK
OFFICE HOURS: Monday1-2 and Friday 1-2. Contact me any time in that hour via Teams.
Lee Hogarth is an experimental psychologist studying learning mechanisms underpinning individual vulnerability to addictive behaviour. His work has validated cognitive/learning assays to screen human drug users (translated from animal behavioural neuroscience methods) to quantify attentional bias for drug cues with eye tracking, cue elicited drug-seeking in the Pavlovian to instrumental transfer paradigm, the balance between goal-directed control versus habit in the outcome-devaluation task, propensity to compulsion drug-seeking in punishment/suppression models, and sensitivity to negative mood/stress induced increases in drug-seeking in choice based reinstatement models. His work has revealed that vulnerability to dependence in humans is not conferred by attentional bias, cue-reactivity or propensity to habit or compulsion, but by excessive valuation of the drug relative to alternative competing rewards driving up goal-directed drug choice, plus sensitivity to negative affect acting as a motivational state to further augment drug valuation and goal-directed drug choice. Hogarth advocates socioeconomic population level interventions for drug users to facilitate access to competing alternative sources of reward.
More detailed history
My work over the past 20 years has focused on the abnormal learning processes underpinning the transition from recreational drug use to dependence, i.e. what makes some people more vulnerable to addiction. This work has been funded by the Wellcome Trust, BBSRC, ESRC and MRC and Alcohol Research UK. I have developed a range of novel human laboratory procedures inspired by animal behavioral neuroscience to study dependence liability. My PhD and early post-doctoral work was inspired by the claim of incentive salience theory that drug related cues command selective attention which controls automatic drug-seeking. I developed a novel conditioning procedure to measure acquired attentional bias for drug paired cues with eye tracking(1). However, the attentional bias established by drug conditioning was not reliably associated with level of dependence, and could be abolished without affecting the capacity of the stimulus control of drug-seeking behavior(2, 3). I concluded that incentive salience for drug cues does not underpin dependence vulnerability and is not a viable target for treatment. For this reason, I moved on to study whether dependence is driven by drug cues eliciting greater drug-seeking behavior(4), and was the first person to develop a human Pavlovian to instrumental transfer procedure with drug rewards (a mainstay of animal behavioral neuroscience) for this purpose(5). However, once again, the ability of external drug cues to promote drug-seeking behavior was not associated with dependence severity(6-9), and so this process could not underpin vulnerability(10-14). I then returned to test the preferred hypothesis of my one time PhD supervisor, Anthony Dickinson (FRS) – that drug dependence is driven by excessive habit learning, that is, the tendency to repeat well practiced drug-seeking behavior without forethought for the consequences. To study this process, I was the first person to develop a novel outcome-devaluation procedure (another mainstay of animal behavioral neuroscience) for humans with drug reinforcers(6, 7). With this method, I demonstrated that human drug-seeking was habitual under conditions of cognitive load(15-18). However, such habit learning was not more pronounced in individuals with greater dependence and so could not underpin vulnerability(6, 7, 11). Despite these wrong turns, my recent work has revealed what learning processes underpin dependence vulnerability. There are, it seems, two independent vulnerabilities. Behavioral economists have long espoused the first vulnerability; that some individuals experience drugs as more reinforcing and so choose drugs preferentially over other natural rewards, accounting for individual differences in dependence level. My work with the outcome-devaluation procedure has supported this view, demonstrating that preferential drug choice in more dependent individuals is goal-directed, that is, driven by an expectation of greater reward value of the drug, and is not automatic or habitual as commonly claimed (6, 7, 9, 19-21). The second (additive) vulnerability is that some individuals experience greater negative emotions, psychiatric symptoms, withdrawal related states, cognitive impairments or physical ailments which can be acutely mitigated by drug use, endowing these negative states with capacity to raise the expected rewards value of the drug, thus motivating goal-directed drug-seeking(22-26). My recent work has demonstrated experimentally that negative states act as powerful motivators of goal-directed tobacco-seeking(22, 23) and that individuals with depression are more vulnerable to such negative triggers for tobacco-seeking(26, 27). This novel affective incentive learning account of dependence vulnerability has also been explicated in a high profile review article(25). My current work focuses on hypersensitivity to negative triggers for drug use in groups with comorbid psychiatric illness, to inform understanding of mechanisms, as well as treatment and prevention strategies for vulnerable drug user groups.
1. Hogarth L., Dickinson A., Hutton S. B., Elbers N., Duka T. Drug expectancy is necessary for stimulus control of human attention, instrumental drug-seeking behaviour and subjective pleasure, Psychopharmacology 2006: 185: 495-504.
2. Hogarth L., Dickinson A., Janowski M., Nikitina A., Duka T. The role of attentional bias in mediating human drug seeking behaviour, Psychopharmacology 2008: 201: 29–41.
3. Hogarth L., Dickinson A., Duka T. Detection versus sustained attention to drug cues have dissociable roles in mediating drug seeking behaviour, Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 2009: 17: 21-30.
4. Hogarth L., Duka T. Human nicotine conditioning requires explicit contingency knowledge: is addictive behaviour cognitively mediated?, Psychopharmacology 2006: 184: 553-566.
5. Hogarth L., Dickinson A., Wright A., Kouvaraki M., Duka T. The role of drug expectancy in the control of human drug seeking, J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process 2007: 33: 484-496.
6. Hogarth L., Chase H. W. Parallel goal-directed and habitual control of human drug-seeking: Implications for dependence vulnerability, J Exp Psychol: Anim Behav Processes 2011: 37: 261-276.
7. Hogarth L. Goal-directed and transfer-cue-elicited drug-seeking are dissociated by pharmacotherapy: Evidence for independent additive controllers, J Exp Psychol: Anim Behav Processes 2012: 38: 266-278.
8. Martinovic J., Jones A., Christiansen P., Rose A. K., Hogarth L., Field M. Electrophysiological responses to alcohol cues are not associated with Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer in social drinkers, PLoS One 2014: 9: e94605.
9. Hogarth L., Chase H. W. Evaluating psychological markers for human nicotine dependence: Tobacco choice, extinction, and Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer, Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 2012: 20: 213-224.
10. Hogarth L., Troisi J. R. I. A hierarchical instrumental decision theory of nicotine dependence. In: Balfour D. J. K. & Munafò M. R., editors. The Neurobiology and Genetics of Nicotine and Tobacco: Springer International Publishing; 2015, p. 165-191.
11. Hogarth L. Controlled and automatic learning processes in addiction. In: Pickard H. & Ahmed S., editors. The Routledge Handbook of Philosophy and Science of Addiction, London and New York: Routledge; In Press.
12. Hogarth L., Balleine B. W., Corbit L. H., Killcross S. Associative learning mechanisms underpinning the transition from recreational drug use to addiction, Ann N Y Acad Sci 2013: 1282: 12-24.
13. Hitsman B., Hogarth L., Tseng L.-J., Teige J. C., Shadel W. G., Dibenedetti D. B. et al. Dissociable effect of acute varenicline on tonic versus cue-provoked craving in non-treatment-motivated heavy smokers, Drug Alcohol Depend 2013: 130: 135-141.
14. Hardy L., Mitchell C., Seabrooke T., Hogarth L. Drug cue reactivity involves hierarchical instrumental learning: evidence from a biconditional Pavlovian to instrumental transfer task, Psychopharmacology 2017: 234: 1977-1984.
15. Hogarth L., Attwood A. S., Bate H. A., Munafò M. R. Acute alcohol impairs human goal-directed action, Biological Psychology 2012: 90: 154-160.
16. Hogarth L., Chase H. W., Baess K. Impaired goal-directed behavioural control in human impulsivity, Q J Exp Psychol 2012: 65: 305-316.
17. Hogarth L., Field M., Rose A. K. Phasic transition from goal-directed to habitual control over drug-seeking produced by conflicting reinforcer expectancy, Addict Biol 2013: 18: 88–97.
18. Pritchard T., Weidemann G., Hogarth L. Negative emotional appraisal selectively disrupts retrieval of expected outcome values required for goal-directed instrumental choice, Cognition and Emotion 2017: in press.
19. Chase H. W., Mackillop J., Hogarth L. Isolating behavioural economic indices of demand in relation to nicotine dependence, Psychopharmacology 2013: 226: 371-380.
20. Rose A. K., Brown K., Field M., Hogarth L. The contributions of value-based decision-making and attentional bias to alcohol-seeking following devaluation, Addiction 2013: 108: 1241-1249.
21. Panlilio L. V., Hogarth L., Shoaib M. Concurrent access to nicotine and sucrose in rats, Psychopharmacology 2015: 232: 1451-1460.
22. Hogarth L., He Z., Chase H. W., Wills A. J., Troisi J., Ii, Leventhal A. M. et al. Negative mood reverses devaluation of goal-directed drug-seeking favouring an incentive learning account of drug dependence, Psychopharmacology 2015: 232: 3235-3247.
23. Hogarth L., Hardy L. Depressive statements prime goal-directed alcohol-seeking in individuals who report drinking to cope with negative affect, Psychopharmacology in press.
24. Hardy L., Hogarth L. A novel concurrent pictorial choice model of mood-induced relapse in hazardous drinkers, Exp Clin Psychopharmacol in press.
25. Mathew A. R., Hogarth L., Leventhal A. M., Cook J. W., Hitsman B. Cigarette smoking and depression comorbidity: systematic review and proposed theoretical model, Addiction 2017: 112: 401-412.
26. Hogarth L., Mathew A. R., Hitsman B. Current major depression is associated with greater sensitivity to the motivational effect of both negative mood induction and abstinence on tobacco-seeking behavior, Drug Alcohol Depend 2017: 176: 1-6.
27. Hogarth L., Hardy L., Mathew A. R., Hitsman B. Negative mood-induced alcohol-seeking is greater in young adults who report depression symptoms, drinking to cope, and subjective reactivity, Exp Clin Psychopharmacol: in press.
BSc Hons 1st, Sussex,
I received my PhD from Cambridge University in 2000 for research on conditioning processes in human addiction supervised by Prof Anthony Dickinson. I then obtained two grants (Wellcome, BBSRC) supporting 7 years of postdoctoral research on attentional learning at Sussex University with Prof Theodora Duka. I obtained a lectureship at Nottingham University in 2007 and shortly after was awarded an MRC young investigators award for 3 years of research on individual differences in associative learning underlying addiction vulnerability. I took up a Senior Lectureship at the University of New South Wales (UNSW), Australia, in 2012, under the academic lead of Prof Simon Killcross. Finally, I returned home in 2013 to take up an Associate Professorship at Exeter University under the academic lead of Prof. Ian McLaren.
Research group links
Contributions to Science
1. Incentive salience theory of addiction in humans
My PhD and early Postdoctoral research tested Robinson and Berridge’s (1993) incentive salience theory of addiction in humans. This account predicts that (a) drug addicts should have their attention captured by drug cues, (b) attentional capture by drug cues should play a causal role in driving drug-seeking behavior, and therefore (c) abolishing the attentional bias should reduce cue-elicited drug-seeking. My first publication was one of the earliest demonstrations that drug cues do in fact capture addicts’ attention, using a reaction time measure of attention(A) and is in the top 10% for citations relative to comparable articles based on Scopus data. My subsequent work demonstrated that this attentional bias could be conditioned to arbitrary stimuli and measured more sensitively by eye tracking(B). However, I later discovered that abolishing the attentional bias did not reduce the ability of drug cues to elicit drug-seeking behavior, suggesting that abolishing the attentional bias will not provide a viable therapeutic intervention for addiction(C,D). This latter paper is in the top 30% for citations despite contradicting a core tenet within addiction theory. My prediction from this pre-clinical work, that attentional bias retraining would not yield therapeutic benefits, has been confirmed by clinical trials.
A. Hogarth LC, Mogg K, Bradley BP, Duka T, Dickinson A. Attentional orienting towards smoking-related stimuli. Behav Pharmacol. 2003 Mar;14(2):153-60. PMID: 12658076.
B. Hogarth L, Dickinson A, Hutton SB, Elbers N, Duka T. Drug expectancy is necessary for stimulus control of human attention, instrumental drug-seeking behaviour and subjective pleasure. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2006 May;185(4):495-504. PMID: 16547713.
C. Hogarth L, Dickinson A, Janowski M, Nikitina A, Duka T. The role of attentional bias in mediating human drug-seeking behaviour. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2008 Nov;201(1):29-41. PMID: 18679657.
D. Hogarth L, Dickinson A, Duka T. Detection versus sustained attention to drug cues have dissociable roles in mediating drug seeking behavior. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol. 2009 Feb;17(1):21-30. PMID: 19186931.
2. Drug cue-reactivity
Having discovered that attentional bias for drug cues is not a viable target for therapy, I switched to studying the decision mechanisms underpinning drug cue-reactivity. My first aim was to test whether cue elicited drug-seeking is automatic as predicted by implicit accounts, or driven by an expectation of the drug as predicted by decision making accounts. To test these predictions, I was the first person to develop an outcome-specific Pavlovian to instrumental transfer (PIT) procedure for humans with drug reinforcers (a method only previously used in animal behavioural neuroscience). My human procedure demonstrated that a drug stimulus could transfer selective control over a separately trained drug-seeking response, but not over a response trained with a different reinforcer(A) (top 6% cited). To produce this effect, the drug stimulus must have retrieved an expectation of the drug which selectively primed drug-seeking. This effect cannot be explained by automatic, habitual or implicit accounts of drug cue-reactivity.
Paradoxically, I later found that the selective control by a tobacco stimulus over a tobacco-seeking response was not attenuated by nicotine replacement therapy (NRT)(B) (top 7% cited). Furthermore, Dr. Hitsman and I extended this result, finding that that cue-elicited tobacco craving was also not attenuated by varenicline(C) (top 25% cited). The implication of these findings is that drug cues elicit drug-seeking by retrieving an expectation that the drug-seeking response has a higher probability of being reinforced, irrespective of whether the drug outcome currently has low value. I subsequently, confirmed this view experimentally and outlined the implications for cue-retraining therapies(D) (top10% cited).
The crucial observation across all of these studies, however, was that the capacity of drug cues to prime drug-seeking in the PIT procedure was not associated with individual differences in level of dependence(A,B,D). Thus, drug cue-reactivity is not the principal mechanism underpinning risk of dependence, so I turned my research program away from this outcome measure.
A. Hogarth L, Dickinson A, Wright A, Kouvaraki M, Duka T. The role of drug expectancy in the control of human drug seeking. J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process. 2007 Oct;33(4):484-96. PMID: 17924795.
B. Hogarth L. Goal-directed and transfer-cue-elicited drug-seeking are dissociated by pharmacotherapy: evidence for independent additive controllers. J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process. 2012 Jul;38(3):266-78. PMID: 22823420.
C. Hitsman B, Hogarth L, Tseng LJ, Teige JC, Shadel WG, DiBenedetti DB, Danto S, Lee TC, Price LH, Niaura R. Dissociable effect of acute varenicline on tonic versus cue-provoked craving in non-treatment-motivated heavy smokers. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2013 Jun 1;130(1-3):135-41. PubMed PMID: 23201174.
D. Hogarth L, Retzler C, Munafò MR, Tran DM, Troisi JR 2nd, Rose AK, Jones A, Field M. Extinction of cue-evoked drug-seeking relies on degrading hierarchical instrumental expectancies. Behav Res Ther. 2014 Aug;59:61-70. PMID: 25011113.
3. Habit learning theory of addiction in humans
My PhD supervisor, Anthony Dickinson, had previously developed the habit learning theory of addiction in animals, and this account has since become a popular account of addiction in humans. On this view, drug-seeking is at first goal-directed (driven by the expected value of the drug), and progressively becomes habitual through practice (automatically elicited by drug related contexts without forethought for the consequences). Individual differences in vulnerability to dependence is driven by a propensity for drug-seeking to shift from being goal-directed to habitual, making the behaviour less amenable to cognitive regulation. To test this prediction, I was the first person to develop an outcome devaluation protocol for humans with drug reinforcers based on the animal model (A,B) (top 5% and 6% cited respectively). This work revealed that although drug-seeking could be rendered habitual under conditions of acute alcohol intoxication(C) (top 9% cited) or cognitive load (D) (top 20% cited), under normal conditions, drug-seeking is goal-directed rather than habitual. Furthermore, more dependent individuals were not more susceptible to drug-seeking becoming habitual(A,B,C,D). Instead, they engage in higher frequency of goal-directed drug-seeking, suggesting dependence is driven by greater expected reward value of the drug (consistent with behavioural-economic accounts). I have concluded from these findings that the evidence for habitual drug-seeking in animals is a product of the invariant nature of their laboratory experience, and that habit theory does not account for addiction in human.
A. Hogarth L, Chase HW. Parallel goal-directed and habitual control of human drug-seeking: implications for dependence vulnerability. J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process. 2011 Jul;37(3):261-76. PMID: 21500933.
B. Hogarth L. Goal-directed and transfer-cue-elicited drug-seeking are dissociated by pharmacotherapy: evidence for independent additive controllers. J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process. 2012 Jul;38(3):266-78. PMID: 22823420.
C. Hogarth L, Attwood AS, Bate HA, Munafò MR. Acute alcohol impairs human goal-directed action. Biol Psychol. 2012 May;90(2):154-60. PMID: 22406757.
D. Hogarth L, Field M, Rose AK. Phasic transition from goal-directed to habitual control over drug-seeking produced by conflicting reinforcer expectancy. Addict Biol. 2013 Jan;18(1):88-97. PMID: 23167442.
4. Negative reinforcement theory of drug dependence
My previous work had suggested that individual differences in sub-clinical dependence is driven by the greater expected reward value of the drug driving higher rates of goal-directed drug-seeking. The suspicion, however, was that a second process contributed to clinical addiction. According to negative reinforcement theories, negative states such as depression, anxiety, withdrawal, cognitive deficits etc., powerfully motivate drug-seeking to acutely mitigate those states. Dr. Hitsman and myself hypothesized that individual sensitivity to such negative triggers motivating goal-directed drug-seeking would be the crucial process underpinning clinical dependence. In testing this hypothesis, we adapted the outcome-devaluation procedure to demonstrate that acute negative mood can powerfully motivate drug-seeking behavior, fully countermanding the capacity of drug satiety to reduce goal-directed drug-seeking(A). We then demonstrated that smokers with current major depression are more sensitive to negative mood and withdrawal induced motivation of tobacco-seeking(B) and young adult drinkers with depression symptoms are more sensitive to negative mood-induced increases in alcohol-seeking(C). We have also synthesized this goal-directed account of drug dependence vulnerability in a high profile review article(D). Overall, we argue that individual differences in sub-clinical dependence are driven by the greater expected reward value of the drug driving higher rates of goal-directed drug-seeking. This process is amplified by negative motivational states in groups with comorbid psychiatric symptoms, which powerfully promote goal-directed drug-seeking producing the pathological character of clinical addiction. Our current work focuses on hypersensitivity to negative triggers for drug use in groups with comorbid psychiatric illness, to inform understanding of mechanisms, as well as treatment and prevention strategies for vulnerable drug user groups.
A. Hogarth, L., He, Z., Chase, H. W., Wills, A. J., Troisi, J., II, Leventhal, A. M., (…), Hitsman, B. (2015). Negative mood reverses devaluation of goal-directed drug-seeking favouring an incentive learning account of drug dependence. Psychopharmacology, 232(17), 3235-3247. PMID: 26041336.
B. Hogarth, L., Mathew, A. R., & Hitsman, B. (2017). Current major depression is associated with greater sensitivity to the motivational effect of both negative mood induction and abstinence on tobacco-seeking behavior. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 176, 1-6. PMID: 28460322
C. Hogarth, L., Hardy, L., Mathew, A. R., & Hitsman, B. (in press) Negative mood-induced alcohol-seeking is greater in young adults who report depression symptoms, drinking to cope, and subjective reactivity. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology.
D. Mathew, A. R., Hogarth, L., Leventhal, A. M., Cook, J. W., & Hitsman, B. (2017). Cigarette smoking and depression comorbidity: systematic review and proposed theoretical model. Addiction, 112(3), 401-412. PMID: 27628300.
Exeter Translational Addiction Partnership (ETAP)
Exeter Translational Addiction Partnership seeks to bridge between research on substance dependence at University of Exeter and the therapeutic services delivered by the charity EDP Drug & Alcohol Services to the community and prison population.
2017 Alcohol Research Council grant: The therapeutic effect of Brief Adaptive Coping Training (BACT) on relapse to alcohol provoked by negative emotional experience.
2013 Australian Research Council Grant: Advancing the science of willpower - investigating the mechanisms and processes of self-control. With Prof. Martin Hagger, Curtin University, Western Australia.
2012 ESRC Project Grant: Alcohol seeking and consumption - the role of reward valuation and attentional bias. With Dr. Abigail Rose, University of Liverpool.
2011 MRC Project Grant: Human drug dependence - cognitive predisposition and neural mechanisms.
2011 Alcohol Education and Research council grant: Neurophysiological correlates of Pavlovian to instrumental transfer in heavy drinkers. With Dr. Matt Field, University of Liverpool.
2007 BBSRC Project Grant: Attentional mediation of conditioned appetitive behaviour in humans. With Prof. Theodora Duka, University of Sussex, and Prof. Anthony Dickinson, University of Cambridge.
Dr. Brian Hitsman at Northwestern University and Dr. Robert Schnoll at University of Pennsylvania: Clinical evaluation of smoking cessation pharmacotherapy.
Prof. Marcus Munafò and Dr. Angela Attwood at Bristol University: Pre-clinical pharmacological and behavioural approaches to attenuating human drug-seeking.
Prof. Matt Field and Dr. Abigail Rose at Liverpool University: Behavioural approaches to understand and treat alcohol dependence.
Prof. Martin Hagger at Curtin University, Western Australia: Protective effects of glucose against relapse induced by loss of cognitive control.
Dr. Mohammed Shoaib at Newcastle University: Animal models of drug dependence vulnerability.
Dr. Lynne Dawkins at University of East London: Transfer of dependence to e-cigarettes.
Publications by category
Publications by year
Lee_Hogarth Details from cache as at 2021-05-18 20:03:35
External Engagement and Impact
British Science Festival, Birmingham, UK. From Pavlov to Present. 2010.
- Module convenor for third year seminar Psychology of Addiction - PSY3437
- Module convenor for third year research projects - PSY3401
- Co-convernor for second year Biological Basis of Behaviour - PSY2304
- Supervisor for BSc, MSc and PhD research projects
- Organiser of BPS South West Undergraduate Psychology Conference
Supervision / Group
- Alexandra Elissavet Bakou
- Lorna Hardy